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37 Associative Words

37.8 Straight Line Programs

37.8-1 IsStraightLineProgram

37.8-2 StraightLineProgram

37.8-3 LinesOfStraightLineProgram

37.8-4 NrInputsOfStraightLineProgram

37.8-5 ResultOfStraightLineProgram

37.8-6 StringOfResultOfStraightLineProgram

37.8-7 CompositionOfStraightLinePrograms

37.8-8 IntegratedStraightLineProgram

37.8-9 RestrictOutputsOfSLP

37.8-10 IntermediateResultOfSLP

37.8-11 IntermediateResultOfSLPWithoutOverwrite

37.8-12 IntermediateResultsOfSLPWithoutOverwrite

37.8-13 ProductOfStraightLinePrograms

37.8-14 SlotUsagePattern

37.8-1 IsStraightLineProgram

37.8-2 StraightLineProgram

37.8-3 LinesOfStraightLineProgram

37.8-4 NrInputsOfStraightLineProgram

37.8-5 ResultOfStraightLineProgram

37.8-6 StringOfResultOfStraightLineProgram

37.8-7 CompositionOfStraightLinePrograms

37.8-8 IntegratedStraightLineProgram

37.8-9 RestrictOutputsOfSLP

37.8-10 IntermediateResultOfSLP

37.8-11 IntermediateResultOfSLPWithoutOverwrite

37.8-12 IntermediateResultsOfSLPWithoutOverwrite

37.8-13 ProductOfStraightLinePrograms

37.8-14 SlotUsagePattern

Associative words are used to represent elements in free groups, semigroups and monoids in **GAP** (see 37.2). An associative word is just a sequence of letters, where each letter is an element of an alphabet (in the following called a *generator*) or its inverse. Associative words can be multiplied; in free monoids also the computation of an identity is permitted, in free groups also the computation of inverses (see 37.4).

Different alphabets correspond to different families of associative words. There is no relation whatsoever between words in different families.

gap> f:= FreeGroup( "a", "b", "c" ); <free group on the generators [ a, b, c ]> gap> gens:= GeneratorsOfGroup(f); [ a, b, c ] gap> w:= gens[1]*gens[2]/gens[3]*gens[2]*gens[1]/gens[1]*gens[3]/gens[2]; a*b*c^-1*b*c*b^-1 gap> w^-1; b*c^-1*b^-1*c*b^-1*a^-1

Words are displayed as products of letters. The letters are usually printed like `f1`

, `f2`

, \(\ldots\), but it is possible to give user defined names to them, which can be arbitrary strings. These names do not necessarily identify a unique letter (generator), it is possible to have several letters –even in the same family– that are displayed in the same way. Note also that *there is no relation between the names of letters and variable names*. In the example above, we might have typed

gap> a:= f.1;; b:= f.2;; c:= f.3;;

(*Interactively*, the function `AssignGeneratorVariables`

(37.2-3) provides a shorthand for this.) This allows us to define `w`

more conveniently:

gap> w := a*b/c*b*a/a*c/b; a*b*c^-1*b*c*b^-1

Using homomorphisms it is possible to express elements of a group as words in terms of generators, see 39.5.

`‣ IsAssocWord` ( obj ) | ( category ) |

`‣ IsAssocWordWithOne` ( obj ) | ( category ) |

`‣ IsAssocWordWithInverse` ( obj ) | ( category ) |

`IsAssocWord`

is the category of associative words in free semigroups, `IsAssocWordWithOne`

is the category of associative words in free monoids (which admit the operation `One`

(31.10-2) to compute an identity), `IsAssocWordWithInverse`

is the category of associative words in free groups (which have an inverse). See `IsWord`

(36.1-1) for more general categories of words.

Usually a family of associative words will be generated by constructing the free object generated by them. See `FreeMonoid`

(51.2-9), `FreeSemigroup`

(51.1-10) for details.

`‣ FreeGroup` ( [wfilt, ]rank[, name] ) | ( function ) |

`‣ FreeGroup` ( [wfilt, ]name1, name2, ... ) | ( function ) |

`‣ FreeGroup` ( [wfilt, ]names ) | ( function ) |

`‣ FreeGroup` ( [wfilt, ]infinity, name, init ) | ( function ) |

Called with a positive integer `rank`, `FreeGroup`

returns a free group on `rank` generators. If the optional argument `name` is given then the generators are printed as `name``1`

, `name``2`

etc., that is, each name is the concatenation of the string `name` and an integer from `1`

to `range`. The default for `name` is the string `"f"`

.

Called in the second form, `FreeGroup`

returns a free group on as many generators as arguments, printed as `name1`, `name2` etc.

Called in the third form, `FreeGroup`

returns a free group on as many generators as the length of the list `names`, the \(i\)-th generator being printed as `names``[`

\(i\)`]`

.

Called in the fourth form, `FreeGroup`

returns a free group on infinitely many generators, where the first generators are printed by the names in the list `init`, and the other generators by `name` and an appended number.

If the extra argument `wfilt` is given, it must be either `IsSyllableWordsFamily`

or `IsLetterWordsFamily`

or `IsWLetterWordsFamily`

or `IsBLetterWordsFamily`

. This filter then specifies the representation used for the elements of the free group (see 37.6). If no such filter is given, a letter representation is used.

(For interfacing to old code that omits the representation flag, use of the syllable representation is also triggered by setting the option `FreeGroupFamilyType`

to the string `"syllable"`

.)

`‣ IsFreeGroup` ( obj ) | ( category ) |

Any group consisting of elements in `IsAssocWordWithInverse`

(37.1-1) lies in the filter `IsFreeGroup`

; this holds in particular for any group created with `FreeGroup`

(37.2-1), or any subgroup of such a group.

Also see Chapter 47.

`‣ AssignGeneratorVariables` ( G ) | ( operation ) |

If `G` is a group, whose generators are represented by symbols (for example a free group, a finitely presented group or a pc group) this function assigns these generators to global variables with the same names.

The aim of this function is to make it easy in interactive use to work with (for example) a free group. It is a shorthand for a sequence of assignments of the form

var1:=GeneratorsOfGroup(G)[1]; var2:=GeneratorsOfGroup(G)[2]; ... varn:=GeneratorsOfGroup(G)[n];

However, since overwriting global variables can be very dangerous, *it is not permitted to use this function within a function*. (If –despite this warning– this is done, the result is undefined.)

If the assignment overwrites existing variables a warning is given, if any of the variables if write protected, or any of the generator names would not be a proper variable name, an error is raised.

`37.3-1 \=`

`‣ \=` ( w1, w2 ) | ( operation ) |

Two associative words are equal if they are words over the same alphabet and if they are sequences of the same letters. This is equivalent to saying that the external representations of the words are equal, see 37.7 and 36.2.

There is no "universal" empty word, every alphabet (that is, every family of words) has its own empty word.

gap> f:= FreeGroup( "a", "b", "b" );; gap> gens:= GeneratorsOfGroup(f); [ a, b, b ] gap> gens[2] = gens[3]; false gap> x:= gens[1]*gens[2]; a*b gap> y:= gens[2]/gens[2]*gens[1]*gens[2]; a*b gap> x = y; true gap> z:= gens[2]/gens[2]*gens[1]*gens[3]; a*b gap> x = z; false

`37.3-2 \<`

`‣ \<` ( w1, w2 ) | ( operation ) |

The ordering of associative words is defined by length and lexicography (this ordering is called *short-lex* ordering), that is, shorter words are smaller than longer words, and words of the same length are compared w.r.t. the lexicographical ordering induced by the ordering of generators. Generators are sorted according to the order in which they were created. If the generators are invertible then each generator `g` is larger than its inverse `g``^-1`

, and `g``^-1`

is larger than every generator that is smaller than `g`.

gap> f:= FreeGroup( 2 );; gens:= GeneratorsOfGroup( f );; gap> a:= gens[1];; b:= gens[2];; gap> One(f) < a^-1; a^-1 < a; a < b^-1; b^-1 < b; b < a^2; a^2 < a*b; true true true true true true

`‣ IsShortLexLessThanOrEqual` ( u, v ) | ( function ) |

returns `IsLessThanOrEqualUnder(`

where `ord`, `u`, `v`)`ord` is the short less ordering for the family of `u` and `v`. (This is here for compatibility with **GAP** 4.2.)

`‣ IsBasicWreathLessThanOrEqual` ( u, v ) | ( function ) |

returns `IsLessThanOrEqualUnder(`

where `ord`, `u`, `v`)`ord` is the basic wreath product ordering for the family of `u` and `v`. (This is here for compatibility with **GAP** 4.2.)

The product of two given associative words is defined as the freely reduced concatenation of the words. Besides the multiplication `\*`

(31.12-1), the arithmetical operators `One`

(31.10-2) (if the word lies in a family with identity) and (if the generators are invertible) `Inverse`

(31.10-8), `\/`

(31.12-1),`\^`

(31.12-1), `Comm`

(31.12-3), and `LeftQuotient`

(31.12-2) are applicable to associative words, see 31.12.

See also `MappedWord`

(36.3-1), an operation that is applicable to arbitrary words.

See Section 37.6 for a discussion of the internal representations of associative words that are supported by **GAP**. Note that operations to extract or act on parts of words (letter or syllables) can carry substantially different costs, depending on the representation the words are in.

`‣ Length` ( w ) | ( attribute ) |

For an associative word `w`, `Length`

returns the number of letters in `w`.

gap> f := FreeGroup("a","b");; gens := GeneratorsOfGroup(f);; gap> a := gens[1];; b := gens[2];;w := a^5*b*a^2*b^-4*a;; gap> w; Length( w ); Length( a^17 ); Length( w^0 ); a^5*b*a^2*b^-4*a 13 17 0

`‣ ExponentSumWord` ( w, gen ) | ( operation ) |

For an associative word `w` and a generator `gen`, `ExponentSumWord`

returns the number of times `gen` appears in `w` minus the number of times its inverse appears in `w`. If both `gen` and its inverse do not occur in `w` then \(0\) is returned. `gen` may also be the inverse of a generator.

gap> w; ExponentSumWord( w, a ); ExponentSumWord( w, b ); a^5*b*a^2*b^-4*a 8 -3 gap> ExponentSumWord( (a*b*a^-1)^3, a ); ExponentSumWord( w, b^-1 ); 0 3

`‣ Subword` ( w, from, to ) | ( operation ) |

For an associative word `w` and two positive integers `from` and `to`, `Subword`

returns the subword of `w` that begins at position `from` and ends at position `to`. Indexing is done with origin 1.

gap> w; Subword( w, 3, 7 ); a^5*b*a^2*b^-4*a a^3*b*a

`‣ PositionWord` ( w, sub, from ) | ( operation ) |

Let `w` and `sub` be associative words, and `from` a positive integer. `PositionWord`

returns the position of the first occurrence of `sub` as a subword of `w`, starting at position `from`. If there is no such occurrence, `fail`

is returned. Indexing is done with origin 1.

In other words, `PositionWord( `

is the smallest integer \(i\) larger than or equal to `w`, `sub`, `from` )`from` such that `Subword( `

\(i\)`w`, `,`

\(i\)`+Length( `

`sub` )-1 ) =`sub`, see `Subword`

(37.4-3).

gap> w; PositionWord( w, a/b, 1 ); a^5*b*a^2*b^-4*a 8 gap> Subword( w, 8, 9 ); a*b^-1 gap> PositionWord( w, a^2, 1 ); 1 gap> PositionWord( w, a^2, 2 ); 2 gap> PositionWord( w, a^2, 6 ); 7 gap> PositionWord( w, a^2, 8 ); fail

`‣ SubstitutedWord` ( w, from, to, by ) | ( operation ) |

`‣ SubstitutedWord` ( w, sub, from, by ) | ( operation ) |

Let `w` be an associative word.

In the first form, `SubstitutedWord`

returns the associative word obtained by replacing the subword of `w` that begins at position `from` and ends at position `to` by the associative word `by`. `from` and `to` must be positive integers, indexing is done with origin 1. In other words, `SubstitutedWord( `

is the product of the three words `w`, `from`, `to`, `by` )`Subword( `

, `w`, 1, `from`-1 )`by`, and `Subword( `

, see `w`, `to`+1, Length( `w` ) )`Subword`

(37.4-3).

In the second form, `SubstitutedWord`

returns the associative word obtained by replacing the first occurrence of the associative word `sub` of `w`, starting at position `from`, by the associative word `by`; if there is no such occurrence, `fail`

is returned.

gap> w; SubstitutedWord( w, 3, 7, a^19 ); a^5*b*a^2*b^-4*a a^22*b^-4*a gap> SubstitutedWord( w, a, 6, b^7 ); a^5*b^8*a*b^-4*a gap> SubstitutedWord( w, a*b, 6, b^7 ); fail

`‣ EliminatedWord` ( w, gen, by ) | ( operation ) |

For an associative word `w`, a generator `gen`, and an associative word `by`, `EliminatedWord`

returns the associative word obtained by replacing each occurrence of `gen` in `w` by `by`.

gap> w; EliminatedWord( w, a, a^2 ); EliminatedWord( w, a, b^-1 ); a^5*b*a^2*b^-4*a a^10*b*a^4*b^-4*a^2 b^-11

For an associative word `w` \(= x_1^{{n_1}} x_2^{{n_2}} \cdots x_k^{{n_k}}\) over an alphabet containing \(x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_k\), such that \(x_i \neq x_{{i+1}}^{{\pm 1}}\) for \(1 \leq i \leq k-1\), the subwords \(x_i^{{e_i}}\) are uniquely determined; these powers of generators are called the *syllables* of \(w\).

`‣ NumberSyllables` ( w ) | ( attribute ) |

`NumberSyllables`

returns the number of syllables of the associative word `w`.

`‣ ExponentSyllable` ( w, i ) | ( operation ) |

`ExponentSyllable`

returns the exponent of the `i`-th syllable of the associative word `w`.

`‣ GeneratorSyllable` ( w, i ) | ( operation ) |

`GeneratorSyllable`

returns the number of the generator that is involved in the `i`-th syllable of the associative word `w`.

`‣ SubSyllables` ( w, from, to ) | ( operation ) |

`SubSyllables`

returns the subword of the associative word `w` that consists of the syllables from positions `from` to `to`, where `from` and `to` must be positive integers, and indexing is done with origin 1.

gap> w; NumberSyllables( w ); a^5*b*a^2*b^-4*a 5 gap> ExponentSyllable( w, 3 ); 2 gap> GeneratorSyllable( w, 3 ); 1 gap> SubSyllables( w, 2, 3 ); b*a^2

**GAP** provides two different internal kinds of representations of associative words. The first one are "syllable representations" in which words are stored in syllable (i.e. generator,exponent) form. (Older versions of **GAP** only used this representation.) The second kind are "letter representations" in which each letter in a word is represented by its index number. Negative numbers are used for inverses. Unless the syllable representation is specified explicitly when creating the free group/monoid or semigroup, a letter representation is used by default.

Depending on the task in mind, either of these two representations will perform better in time or in memory use and algorithms that are syllable or letter based (for example `GeneratorSyllable`

(37.5-3) and `Subword`

(37.4-3)) perform substantially better in the corresponding representation. For example when creating pc groups (see 46), it is advantageous to use a syllable representation while calculations in free groups usually benefit from using a letter representation.

`‣ IsLetterAssocWordRep` ( obj ) | ( representation ) |

A word in letter representation stores a list of generator/inverses numbers (as given by `LetterRepAssocWord`

(37.6-8)). Letter access is fast, syllable access is slow for such words.

`‣ IsLetterWordsFamily` ( obj ) | ( category ) |

A letter word family stores words by default in letter form.

Internally, there are letter representations that use integers (4 Byte) to represent a generator and letter representations that use single bytes to represent a character. The latter are more memory efficient, but can only be used if there are less than 128 generators (in which case they are used by default).

`‣ IsBLetterAssocWordRep` ( obj ) | ( representation ) |

`‣ IsWLetterAssocWordRep` ( obj ) | ( representation ) |

these two subrepresentations of `IsLetterAssocWordRep`

(37.6-1) indicate whether the word is stored as a list of bytes (in a string) or as a list of integers).

`‣ IsBLetterWordsFamily` ( obj ) | ( category ) |

`‣ IsWLetterWordsFamily` ( obj ) | ( category ) |

These two subcategories of `IsLetterWordsFamily`

(37.6-2) specify the type of letter representation to be used.

`‣ IsSyllableAssocWordRep` ( obj ) | ( representation ) |

A word in syllable representation stores generator/exponents pairs (as given by `ExtRepOfObj`

(79.16-1). Syllable access is fast, letter access is slow for such words.

`‣ IsSyllableWordsFamily` ( obj ) | ( category ) |

A syllable word family stores words by default in syllable form. There are also different versions of syllable representations, which compress a generator exponent pair in 8, 16 or 32 bits or use a pair of integers. Internal mechanisms try to make this as memory efficient as possible.

`‣ Is16BitsFamily` ( obj ) | ( category ) |

`‣ Is32BitsFamily` ( obj ) | ( category ) |

`‣ IsInfBitsFamily` ( obj ) | ( category ) |

Regardless of the internal representation used, it is possible to convert a word in a list of numbers in letter or syllable representation and vice versa.

`‣ LetterRepAssocWord` ( w[, gens] ) | ( operation ) |

The *letter representation* of an associated word is as a list of integers, each entry corresponding to a group generator. Inverses of the generators are represented by negative numbers. The generator numbers are as associated to the family.

This operation returns the letter representation of the associative word `w`.

In the call with two arguments, the generator numbers correspond to the generator order given in the list `gens`.

(For words stored in syllable form the letter representation has to be computed.)

`‣ AssocWordByLetterRep` ( Fam, lrep[, gens] ) | ( operation ) |

takes a letter representation `lrep` (see `LetterRepAssocWord`

(37.6-8)) and returns an associative word in family `fam` corresponding to this letter representation.

If `gens` is given, the numbers in the letter representation correspond to `gens`.

gap> w:=AssocWordByLetterRep( FamilyObj(a), [-1,2,1,-2,-2,-2,1,1,1,1]); a^-1*b*a*b^-3*a^4 gap> LetterRepAssocWord( w^2 ); [ -1, 2, 1, -2, -2, -2, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, -2, -2, -2, 1, 1, 1, 1 ]

The external representation (see section 37.7) can be used if a syllable representation is needed.

The external representation of the associative word \(w\) is defined as follows. If \(w = g_{{i_1}}^{{e_1}} * g_{{i_2}}^{{e_2}} * \cdots * g_{{i_k}}^{{e_k}}\) is a word over the alphabet \(g_1, g_2, \ldots\), i.e., \(g_i\) denotes the \(i\)-th generator of the family of \(w\), then \(w\) has external representation \([ i_1, e_1, i_2, e_2, \ldots, i_k, e_k ]\). The empty list describes the identity element (if exists) of the family. Exponents may be negative if the family allows inverses. The external representation of an associative word is guaranteed to be freely reduced; for example, \(g_1 * g_2 * g_2^{{-1}} * g_1\) has the external representation `[ 1, 2 ]`

.

Regardless of the family preference for letter or syllable representations (see 37.6), `ExtRepOfObj`

and `ObjByExtRep`

can be used and interface to this "syllable"-like representation.

gap> w:= ObjByExtRep( FamilyObj(a), [1,5,2,-7,1,3,2,4,1,-2] ); a^5*b^-7*a^3*b^4*a^-2 gap> ExtRepOfObj( w^2 ); [ 1, 5, 2, -7, 1, 3, 2, 4, 1, 3, 2, -7, 1, 3, 2, 4, 1, -2 ]

*Straight line programs* describe an efficient way for evaluating an abstract word at concrete generators, in a more efficient way than with `MappedWord`

(36.3-1). For example, the associative word \(ababbab\) of length \(7\) can be computed from the generators \(a\), \(b\) with only four multiplications, by first computing \(c = ab\), then \(d = cb\), and then \(cdc\); Alternatively, one can compute \(c = ab\), \(e = bc\), and \(aee\). In each step of these computations, one forms words in terms of the words computed in the previous steps.

A straight line program in **GAP** is represented by an object in the category `IsStraightLineProgram`

(37.8-1)) that stores a list of "lines" each of which has one of the following three forms.

a nonempty dense list \(l\) of integers,

a pair \([ l, i ]\) where \(l\) is a list of form 1. and \(i\) is a positive integer,

a list \([ l_1, l_2, \ldots, l_k ]\) where each \(l_i\) is a list of form 1.; this may occur only for the last line of the program.

The lists of integers that occur are interpreted as external representations of associative words (see Section 37.7); for example, the list \([ 1, 3, 2, -1 ]\) represents the word \(g_1^3 g_2^{{-1}}\), with \(g_1\) and \(g_2\) the first and second abstract generator, respectively.

For the meaning of the list of lines, see `ResultOfStraightLineProgram`

(37.8-5).

Straight line programs can be constructed using `StraightLineProgram`

(37.8-2).

Defining attributes for straight line programs are `NrInputsOfStraightLineProgram`

(37.8-4) and `LinesOfStraightLineProgram`

(37.8-3). Another operation for straight line programs is `ResultOfStraightLineProgram`

(37.8-5).

Special methods applicable to straight line programs are installed for the operations `Display`

(6.3-6), `IsInternallyConsistent`

(12.8-4), `PrintObj`

(6.3-5), and `ViewObj`

(6.3-5).

For a straight line program `prog`, the default `Display`

(6.3-6) method prints the interpretation of `prog` as a sequence of assignments of associative words; a record with components `gensnames`

(with value a list of strings) and `listname`

(a string) may be entered as second argument of `Display`

(6.3-6), in this case these names are used, the default for `gensnames`

is `[ g1, g2, `

\(\ldots\)` ]`

, the default for `listname`

is \(r\).

`‣ IsStraightLineProgram` ( obj ) | ( category ) |

Each straight line program in **GAP** lies in the category `IsStraightLineProgram`

.

`‣ StraightLineProgram` ( lines[, nrgens] ) | ( function ) |

`‣ StraightLineProgram` ( string, gens ) | ( function ) |

`‣ StraightLineProgramNC` ( lines[, nrgens] ) | ( function ) |

`‣ StraightLineProgramNC` ( string, gens ) | ( function ) |

In the first form, `lines` must be a list of lists that defines a unique straight line program (see `IsStraightLineProgram`

(37.8-1)); in this case `StraightLineProgram`

returns this program, otherwise an error is signalled. The optional argument `nrgens` specifies the number of input generators of the program; if a line of form 1. (that is, a list of integers) occurs in `lines` except in the last position, this number is not determined by `lines` and therefore *must* be specified by the argument `nrgens`; if not then `StraightLineProgram`

returns `fail`

.

In the second form, `string` must be a string describing an arithmetic expression in terms of the strings in the list `gens`, where multiplication is denoted by concatenation, powering is denoted by `^`

, and round brackets `(`

, `)`

may be used. Each entry in `gens` must consist only of uppercase or lowercase letters (i.e., letters in `IsAlphaChar`

(27.5-4)) such that no entry is an initial part of another one. Called with this input, `StraightLineProgram`

returns a straight line program that evaluates to the word corresponding to `string` when called with generators corresponding to `gens`.

The `NC`

variant does the same, except that the internal consistency of the program is not checked.

`‣ LinesOfStraightLineProgram` ( prog ) | ( attribute ) |

For a straight line program `prog`, `LinesOfStraightLineProgram`

returns the list of program lines. There is no default method to compute these lines if they are not stored.

`‣ NrInputsOfStraightLineProgram` ( prog ) | ( attribute ) |

For a straight line program `prog`, `NrInputsOfStraightLineProgram`

returns the number of generators that are needed as input.

If a line of form 1. (that is, a list of integers) occurs in the lines of `prog` except the last line then the number of generators is not determined by the lines, and must be set in the construction of the straight line program (see `StraightLineProgram`

(37.8-2)). So if `prog` contains a line of form 1. other than the last line and does *not* store the number of generators then `NrInputsOfStraightLineProgram`

signals an error.

`‣ ResultOfStraightLineProgram` ( prog, gens ) | ( operation ) |

`ResultOfStraightLineProgram`

evaluates the straight line program (see `IsStraightLineProgram`

(37.8-1)) `prog` at the group elements in the list `gens`.

The *result* of a straight line program with lines \(p_1, p_2, \ldots, p_k\) when applied to `gens` is defined as follows.

**(a)**First a list \(r\) of intermediate results is initialized with a shallow copy of

`gens`.**(b)**For \(i < k\), before the \(i\)-th step, let \(r\) be of length \(n\). If \(p_i\) is the external representation of an associative word in the first \(n\) generators then the image of this word under the homomorphism that is given by mapping \(r\) to these first \(n\) generators is added to \(r\); if \(p_i\) is a pair \([ l, j ]\), for a list \(l\), then the same element is computed, but instead of being added to \(r\), it replaces the \(j\)-th entry of \(r\).

**(c)**For \(i = k\), if \(p_k\) is the external representation of an associative word then the element described in (b) is the result of the program, if \(p_k\) is a pair \([ l, j ]\), for a list \(l\), then the result is the element described by \(l\), and if \(p_k\) is a list \([ l_1, l_2, \ldots, l_k ]\) of lists then the result is a list of group elements, where each \(l_i\) is treated as in (b).

gap> f:= FreeGroup( "x", "y" );; gens:= GeneratorsOfGroup( f );; gap> x:= gens[1];; y:= gens[2];; gap> prg:= StraightLineProgram( [ [] ] ); <straight line program> gap> ResultOfStraightLineProgram( prg, [] ); [ ]

The above straight line program `prg`

returns –for *any* list of input generators– an empty list.

gap> StraightLineProgram( [ [1,2,2,3], [3,-1] ] ); fail gap> prg:= StraightLineProgram( [ [1,2,2,3], [3,-1] ], 2 ); <straight line program> gap> LinesOfStraightLineProgram( prg ); [ [ 1, 2, 2, 3 ], [ 3, -1 ] ] gap> prg:= StraightLineProgram( "(a^2b^3)^-1", [ "a", "b" ] ); <straight line program> gap> LinesOfStraightLineProgram( prg ); [ [ [ 1, 2, 2, 3 ], 3 ], [ [ 3, -1 ], 4 ] ] gap> res:= ResultOfStraightLineProgram( prg, gens ); y^-3*x^-2 gap> res = (x^2 * y^3)^-1; true gap> NrInputsOfStraightLineProgram( prg ); 2 gap> Print( prg, "\n" ); StraightLineProgram( [ [ [ 1, 2, 2, 3 ], 3 ], [ [ 3, -1 ], 4 ] ], 2 ) gap> Display( prg ); # input: r:= [ g1, g2 ]; # program: r[3]:= r[1]^2*r[2]^3; r[4]:= r[3]^-1; # return value: r[4] gap> IsInternallyConsistent( StraightLineProgramNC( [ [1,2] ] ) ); true gap> IsInternallyConsistent( StraightLineProgramNC( [ [1,2,3] ] ) ); false gap> prg1:= StraightLineProgram( [ [1,1,2,2], [3,3,1,1] ], 2 );; gap> prg2:= StraightLineProgram( [ [ [1,1,2,2], 2 ], [2,3,1,1] ] );; gap> res1:= ResultOfStraightLineProgram( prg1, gens ); (x*y^2)^3*x gap> res1 = (x*y^2)^3*x; true gap> res2:= ResultOfStraightLineProgram( prg2, gens ); (x*y^2)^3*x gap> res2 = (x*y^2)^3*x; true gap> prg:= StraightLineProgram( [ [2,3], [ [3,1,1,4], [1,2,3,1] ] ], 2 );; gap> res:= ResultOfStraightLineProgram( prg, gens ); [ y^3*x^4, x^2*y^3 ]

`‣ StringOfResultOfStraightLineProgram` ( prog, gensnames[, "LaTeX"] ) | ( function ) |

`StringOfResultOfStraightLineProgram`

returns a string that describes the result of the straight line program (see `IsStraightLineProgram`

(37.8-1)) `prog` as word(s) in terms of the strings in the list `gensnames`. If the result of `prog` is a single element then the return value of `StringOfResultOfStraightLineProgram`

is a string consisting of the entries of `gensnames`, opening and closing brackets `(`

and `)`

, and powering by integers via `^`

. If the result of `prog` is a list of elements then the return value of `StringOfResultOfStraightLineProgram`

is a comma separated concatenation of the strings of the single elements, enclosed in square brackets `[`

, `]`

.

gap> prg:= StraightLineProgram( [ [ 1, 2, 2, 3 ], [ 3, -1 ] ], 2 );; gap> StringOfResultOfStraightLineProgram( prg, [ "a", "b" ] ); "(a^2b^3)^-1" gap> StringOfResultOfStraightLineProgram( prg, [ "a", "b" ], "LaTeX" ); "(a^{2}b^{3})^{-1}"

`‣ CompositionOfStraightLinePrograms` ( prog2, prog1 ) | ( function ) |

For two straight line programs `prog1` and `prog2`, `CompositionOfStraightLinePrograms`

returns a straight line program `prog` with the properties that `prog1` and `prog` have the same number of inputs, and the result of `prog` when applied to given generators `gens` equals the result of `prog2` when this is applied to the output of `prog1` applied to `gens`.

(Of course the number of outputs of `prog1` must be the same as the number of inputs of `prog2`.)

gap> prg1:= StraightLineProgram( "a^2b", [ "a","b" ] );; gap> prg2:= StraightLineProgram( "c^5", [ "c" ] );; gap> comp:= CompositionOfStraightLinePrograms( prg2, prg1 ); <straight line program> gap> StringOfResultOfStraightLineProgram( comp, [ "a", "b" ] ); "(a^2b)^5" gap> prg:= StraightLineProgram( [ [2,3], [ [3,1,1,4], [1,2,3,1] ] ], 2 );; gap> StringOfResultOfStraightLineProgram( prg, [ "a", "b" ] ); "[ b^3a^4, a^2b^3 ]" gap> comp:= CompositionOfStraightLinePrograms( prg, prg ); <straight line program> gap> StringOfResultOfStraightLineProgram( comp, [ "a", "b" ] ); "[ (a^2b^3)^3(b^3a^4)^4, (b^3a^4)^2(a^2b^3)^3 ]"

`‣ IntegratedStraightLineProgram` ( listofprogs ) | ( function ) |

For a nonempty dense list `listofprogs` of straight line programs that have the same number \(n\), say, of inputs (see `NrInputsOfStraightLineProgram`

(37.8-4)) and for which the results (see `ResultOfStraightLineProgram`

(37.8-5)) are single elements (i.e., *not* lists of elements), `IntegratedStraightLineProgram`

returns a straight line program `prog` with \(n\) inputs such that for each \(n\)-tuple `gens` of generators, `ResultOfStraightLineProgram( `

is equal to the list `prog`, `gens` )`List( `

.`listofprogs`, `p` -> ResultOfStraightLineProgram( `p`, `gens` )

gap> f:= FreeGroup( "x", "y" );; gens:= GeneratorsOfGroup( f );; gap> prg1:= StraightLineProgram([ [ [ 1, 2 ], 1 ], [ 1, 2, 2, -1 ] ], 2);; gap> prg2:= StraightLineProgram([ [ [ 2, 2 ], 3 ], [ 1, 3, 3, 2 ] ], 2);; gap> prg3:= StraightLineProgram([ [ 2, 2 ], [ 1, 3, 3, 2 ] ], 2);; gap> prg:= IntegratedStraightLineProgram( [ prg1, prg2, prg3 ] );; gap> ResultOfStraightLineProgram( prg, gens ); [ x^4*y^-1, x^3*y^4, x^3*y^4 ] gap> prg:= IntegratedStraightLineProgram( [ prg2, prg3, prg1 ] );; gap> ResultOfStraightLineProgram( prg, gens ); [ x^3*y^4, x^3*y^4, x^4*y^-1 ] gap> prg:= IntegratedStraightLineProgram( [ prg3, prg1, prg2 ] );; gap> ResultOfStraightLineProgram( prg, gens ); [ x^3*y^4, x^4*y^-1, x^3*y^4 ]

`‣ RestrictOutputsOfSLP` ( slp, k ) | ( function ) |

`slp` must be a straight line program returning a tuple of values. This function returns a new slp that calculates only those outputs specified by `k`. The argument `k` may be an integer or a list of integers. If `k` is an integer, the resulting slp calculates only the result with that number in the original output tuple. If `k` is a list of integers, the resulting slp calculates those results with indices `k` in the original output tuple. In both cases the resulting slp does only what is necessary. Obviously, the slp must have a line with enough expressions (lists) for the supplied `k` as its last line. `slp` is either an slp or a pair where the first entry are the lines of the slp and the second is the number of inputs.

`‣ IntermediateResultOfSLP` ( slp, k ) | ( function ) |

Returns a new slp that calculates only the value of slot `k` at the end of `slp` doing only what is necessary. slp is either an slp or a pair where the first entry are the lines of the slp and the second is the number of inputs. Note that this assumes a general SLP with possible overwriting. If you know that your SLP does not overwrite slots, please use `IntermediateResultOfSLPWithoutOverwrite`

(37.8-11), which is much faster in this case.

`‣ IntermediateResultOfSLPWithoutOverwrite` ( slp, k ) | ( function ) |

Returns a new slp that calculates only the value of slot `k`, which must be an integer. Note that `slp` must not overwrite slots but only append!!! Use `IntermediateResultOfSLP`

(37.8-10) in the other case! `slp` is either an slp or a pair where the first entry is the lines of the slp and the second is the number of inputs.

`‣ IntermediateResultsOfSLPWithoutOverwrite` ( slp, k ) | ( function ) |

Returns a new slp that calculates only the value of slots contained in the list k. Note that `slp` must not overwrite slots but only append!!! Use `IntermediateResultOfSLP`

(37.8-10) in the other case! `slp` is either a slp or a pair where the first entry is the lines of the slp and the second is the number of inputs.

`‣ ProductOfStraightLinePrograms` ( s1, s2 ) | ( function ) |

`s1` and `s2` must be two slps that return a single element with the same number of inputs. This function constructs an slp that returns the product of the two results the slps `s1` and `s2` would produce with the same input.

`‣ SlotUsagePattern` ( s ) | ( attribute ) |

Analyses the straight line program `s` for more efficient evaluation. This means in particular two things, when this attribute is known: First of all, intermediate results which are not actually needed later on are not computed at all, and once an intermediate result is used for the last time in this SLP, it is discarded. The latter leads to the fact that the evaluation of the SLP needs less memory.

When computing with very large (in terms of memory) elements, for example permutations of degree a few hundred thousands, it can be helpful (in terms of memory usage) to represent them via straight line programs in terms of an original generator set. (So every element takes only small extra storage for the straight line program.)

A straight line program element has a *seed* (a list of group elements) and a straight line program on the same number of generators as the length of this seed, its value is the value of the evaluated straight line program.

At the moment, the entries of the straight line program have to be simple lists (i.e. of the first form).

Straight line program elements are in the same categories and families as the elements of the seed, so they should work together with existing algorithms.

Note however, that due to the different way of storage some normally very cheap operations (such as testing for element equality) can become more expensive when dealing with straight line program elements. This is essentially the tradeoff for using less memory.

See also Section 43.13.

`‣ IsStraightLineProgElm` ( obj ) | ( representation ) |

A straight line program element is a group element given (for memory reasons) as a straight line program. Straight line program elements are positional objects, the first component is a record with a component `seeds`

, the second component the straight line program.

`‣ StraightLineProgElm` ( seed, prog ) | ( function ) |

Creates a straight line program element for seed `seed` and program `prog`.

`‣ StraightLineProgGens` ( gens[, base] ) | ( function ) |

returns a set of straight line program elements corresponding to the generators in `gens`. If `gens` is a set of permutations then `base` can be given which must be a base for the group generated by `gens`. (Such a base will be used to speed up equality tests.)

`‣ EvalStraightLineProgElm` ( slpel ) | ( function ) |

evaluates a straight line program element `slpel` from its seeds.

`‣ StretchImportantSLPElement` ( elm ) | ( operation ) |

If `elm` is a straight line program element whose straight line representation is very long, this operation changes the representation of `elm` to a straight line program element, equal to `elm`, whose seed contains the evaluation of `elm` and whose straight line program has length 1.

For other objects nothing happens.

This operation permits to designate "important" elements within an algorithm (elements that will be referred to often), which will be represented by guaranteed short straight line program elements.

gap> gens:=StraightLineProgGens([(1,2,3,4),(1,2)]); [ <[ [ 2, 1 ] ]|(1,2,3,4)>, <[ [ 1, 1 ] ]|(1,2)> ] gap> g:=Group(gens);; gap> (gens[1]^3)^gens[2]; <[ [ 1, -1, 2, 3, 1, 1 ] ]|(1,2,4,3)> gap> Size(g); 24 gap> Random(g); < [ [ 1, -1, 2, -1, 1, 1, 2, -1, 1, -1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, -1, 2, 2, 1, 1 ], [ 3, -2, 2, -2 ], [ 4, 1, 1, -1, 2, -2, 1, 1, 2, -1, 4, 1 ] ]|(1,3)>

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