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4 Path Algebras
 4.1 Introduction
 4.2 Constructing Path Algebras
 4.3 Categories and Properties of Path Algebras
 4.4 Attributes and Operations for Path Algebras
 4.5 Operations on Path Algebra Elements
 4.6 Constructing Quotients of Path Algebras
 4.7 Ideals and operations on ideals
 4.8 Categories and properties of ideals
 4.9 Operations on ideals
 4.10 Attributes of ideals
 4.11 Categories and Properties of Quotients of Path Algebras
 4.12 Attributes and Operations (for Quotients) of Path Algebras
 4.13 Attributes and Operations on Elements of Quotients of Path Algebra
 4.14 Predefined classes and classes of (quotients of) path algebras
 4.15 Opposite algebras
 4.16 Tensor products of path algebras
 4.17 Finite dimensional algebras over finite fields
 4.18 Algebras
 4.19 Saving and reading quotients of path algebras to and from a file

4 Path Algebras

4.1 Introduction

A path algebra is an algebra constructed from a field F (see Chapter 56 and 57 in the GAP manual for information about fields) and a quiver Q. The path algebra FQ contains all finite linear combinations of paths of Q. This chapter describes the functions in QPA that deal with path algebras and quotients of path algebras. Path algebras are algebras, so see Chapter 60: Algebras in the GAP manual for functionality such as generators, basis functions, and mappings.

The only supported ordering of elements in a path algebra is length left lexicographic ordering. See 3.4 for more information.

4.2 Constructing Path Algebras

4.2-1 PathAlgebra
‣ PathAlgebra( F, Q )( function )

Arguments: F -- a field, Q -- a quiver.

Returns: the path algebra FQ of Q over the field F.

For construction of fields, see the GAP documentation. The elements of the path algebra FQ will be ordered by left length-lexicographic ordering.

gap> Q := Quiver( ["u","v"] , [ ["u","u","a"], ["u","v","b"], 
> ["v","u","c"], ["v","v","d"] ] );
<quiver with 2 vertices and 4 arrows>
gap> F := Rationals;
Rationals
gap> FQ := PathAlgebra(F,Q);
<Rationals[<quiver with 2 vertices and 4 arrows>]>

4.3 Categories and Properties of Path Algebras

4.3-1 IsPathAlgebra
‣ IsPathAlgebra( object )( property )

Arguments: object -- any object in GAP.

Returns: true whenever object is a path algebra.

gap> IsPathAlgebra(FQ);
true

4.4 Attributes and Operations for Path Algebras

4.4-1 AssociatedMonomialAlgebra
‣ AssociatedMonomialAlgebra( A )( attribute )

Arguments: A -- a quiver algebra.

Returns: the associated monomial algebra of A with respect to the Groebner basis the path algebra is endoved with.

4.4-2 QuiverOfPathAlgebra
‣ QuiverOfPathAlgebra( FQ )( attribute )

Arguments: FQ -- a path algebra.

Returns: the quiver from which FQ was constructed.

gap> QuiverOfPathAlgebra(FQ);
<quiver with 2 vertices and 4 arrows> 

4.4-3 OrderingOfAlgebra
‣ OrderingOfAlgebra( FQ )( attribute )

Arguments: FQ -- a path algebra.

Returns: the ordering of the quiver of the path algebra.

Note: As of the current version of QPA, only left length lexicographic ordering is supported.

4.4-4 .
‣ .( FQ, generator )( operation )

Arguments: FQ -- a path algebra, generator -- a vertex or an arrow in the quiver Q.

Returns: the generator as an element of the path algebra.

Other elements of the path algebra can be constructed as linear combinations of the generators. For further operations on elements, see below.

gap> FQ.a;
(1)*a
gap> FQ.v;
(1)*v
gap> elem := 2*FQ.a - 3*FQ.v;
(-3)*v+(2)*a

4.5 Operations on Path Algebra Elements

4.5-1 ElementOfPathAlgebra
‣ ElementOfPathAlgebra( PA, path )( operation )

Arguments: PA -- a path algebra, path -- a path in the quiver from which PA was constructed.

Returns: The embedding of path into the path algebra PA, or it returns false if path is not an element of the quiver from which PA was constructed.

4.5-2 <
‣ <( a, b )( operation )

Arguments: a and b -- two elements of the same path algebra.

Returns: True whenever a is smaller than b, according to the ordering of the path algebra.

4.5-3 IsLeftUniform
‣ IsLeftUniform( element )( operation )

Arguments: element -- an element of the path algebra.

Returns: true if each monomial in element has the same source vertex, false otherwise.

4.5-4 IsRightUniform
‣ IsRightUniform( element )( operation )

Arguments: element -- an element of the path algebra.

Returns: true if each monomial in element has the same target vertex, false otherwise.

4.5-5 IsUniform
‣ IsUniform( element )( operation )

Arguments: element -- an element of the path algebra.

Returns: true whenever element is both left and right uniform.

gap> IsLeftUniform(elem);
false
gap> IsRightUniform(elem);
false
gap> IsUniform(elem);
false
gap> another := FQ.a*FQ.b + FQ.b*FQ.d*FQ.c*FQ.b*FQ.d;
(1)*a*b+(1)*b*d*c*b*d
gap> IsLeftUniform(another);
true
gap> IsRightUniform(another);
true
gap> IsUniform(another);
true 

4.5-6 LeadingTerm
‣ LeadingTerm( element )( operation )
‣ Tip( element )( operation )

Arguments: element -- an element of the path algebra.

Returns: the term in element whose monomial is largest among those monomials that have nonzero coefficients (known as the "tip" of element).

Note: The two operations are equivalent.

4.5-7 LeadingCoefficient
‣ LeadingCoefficient( element )( operation )
‣ TipCoefficient( element )( operation )

Arguments: element -- an element of the path algebra.

Returns: the coefficient of the tip of element (which is an element of the field).

Note: The two operations are equivalent.

4.5-8 LeadingMonomial
‣ LeadingMonomial( element )( operation )
‣ TipMonomial( element )( operation )

Arguments: element -- an element of the path algebra.

Returns: the monomial of the tip of element (which is an element of the underlying quiver, not of the path algebra).

Note: The two operations are equivalent.

gap> elem := FQ.a*FQ.b*FQ.c + FQ.b*FQ.d*FQ.c+FQ.d*FQ.d;
(1)*d^2+(1)*a*b*c+(1)*b*d*c
gap> LeadingTerm(elem);
(1)*b*d*c
gap> LeadingCoefficient(elem);
1
gap> mon := LeadingMonomial(elem);
b*d*c
gap> mon in FQ;
false
gap> mon in Q;
true 

4.5-9 MakeUniformOnRight
‣ MakeUniformOnRight( elems )( operation )

Arguments: elems -- a list of elements in a path algebra.

Returns: a list of right uniform elements generated by each element of elems.

4.5-10 MappedExpression
‣ MappedExpression( expr, gens1, gens2 )( operation )

Arguments: expr -- element of a path algebra, gens1 and gens2 -- equal-length lists of generators for subalgebras.

Returns: expr as an element of the subalgebra generated by gens2.

The element expr must be in the subalgebra generated by gens1. The lists define a mapping of each generator in gens1 to the corresponding generator in gens2. The value returned is the evaluation of the mapping at expr.

4.5-11 VertexPosition
‣ VertexPosition( element )( operation )

Arguments: element -- an element of the path algebra on the form k*v, where v is a vertex of the underlying quiver and k is an element of the field.

Returns: the position of the vertex v in the list of vertices of the quiver.

4.5-12 RelationsOfAlgebra
‣ RelationsOfAlgebra( A )( attribute )

Arguments: A -- a quiver algebra.

Returns: a set of generators for the ideal in the path algebra kQ from which the algebra FQ was constructed. If A is a path algebra, then an empty list is returned.

4.6 Constructing Quotients of Path Algebras

In the introduction we saw already one way of constructing a quotient of a path algebra. In addition to this there are at least two other ways of constructing a quotient of a path algebra; one with factoring out an ideal and one where a Groebner basis is attached to the quotient. We discuss these two next.

For several functions in QPA to function properly one needs to have a Groebner basis attached to the quotient one wants to construct, or equivalently a Groebner basis for the ideal one is factoring out. For this to work the ideal must admit a finite Groebner basis. However, to our knowlegde there is no algorithm for determining if an ideal has a finite Groebner basis. On the other hand, it is known that if the factor algebra is finite dimensional, then the ideal has a finite Groebner basis (independent of the ordering of the elements, see [Gre00] ). In addition to having a finite Groebner basis, several functions also need that the factoring ideal is admissible. A quotient of a path algebra by an admissible ideal belongs to the category IsAdmissibleQuotientOfPathAlgebra (4.11-1). The method used in the introduction constructs a quotient in this category. However, there are situations where it is interesting to analyze quotients of path algebras by a non-admissible ideal, so we provide also additional methods.

In the example below, we construct a factor of a path algebra purely with commands in GAP (cf. also Chapter 60: Algebras in the GAP manual on how to construct an ideal and a quotient of an algebra). Functions which use Groebner bases like IsFiniteDimensional (4.11-3), Dimension (4.12-6), IsSpecialBiserialAlgebra (4.11-19) or a membership test \in (4.7-6) will work properly (they simply compute the Groebner basis if it is necessary). But some "older" functions (like IndecProjectiveModules (6.5-4)) can fail or give an incorrect answer! This way of constructing a quotient of a path algebra can be useful e.g. if we know that computing a Groebner basis will take a long time and we do not need this because we want to deal only with modules.

gap> Q := Quiver( 1, [ [1,1,"a"], [1,1,"b"] ] );
<quiver with 1 vertices and 2 arrows>
gap> kQ := PathAlgebra(Rationals, Q);
<Rationals[<quiver with 1 vertices and 2 arrows>]>
gap> gens := GeneratorsOfAlgebra(kQ);
[ (1)*v1, (1)*a, (1)*b ]
gap> a := gens[2];
(1)*a
gap> b := gens[3];
(1)*b
gap> relations := [a^2,a*b-b*a, b*b];
[ (1)*a^2, (1)*a*b+(-1)*b*a, (1)*b^2 ]
gap> I := Ideal(kQ,relations);
<two-sided ideal in <Rationals[<quiver with 1 vertices and 2 arrows>]>
    , (3 generators)>
gap> A := kQ/I;
<Rationals[<quiver with 1 vertices and 2 arrows>]/
<two-sided ideal in <Rationals[<quiver with 1 vertices and 2 arrows>]>
    , (3 generators)>>
gap> IndecProjectiveModules(A);
Compute a Groebner basis of the ideal you are factoring out with befor\
e you form the quotient algebra, or you have entered an algebra which \
is not finite dimensional.
fail

To resolve this matter, we need to compute the Gröbner basis of the ideal generated by the relations in kQ (yes, it seems like we are going in circles here. Remember, then, that an ideal in the "mathematical sense" may exist independently of the a corresponding Ideal object in GAP. Also, Gröbner bases in QPA are handled by the GBNP package, with constructor methods not dependent on Ideal objects. After creating the ideal I, we need to perform yet another Gröbner basis operation which just set a respective attribute for I, see GroebnerBasis (5.1-2).

gap> gb := GBNPGroebnerBasis(relations,kQ);
[ (1)*a^2, (-1)*a*b+(1)*b*a, (1)*b^2 ]
gap> I := Ideal(kQ,gb);                    
<two-sided ideal in <Rationals[<quiver with 1 vertices and 2 arrows>]>, 
  (3 generators)>
gap> GroebnerBasis(I,gb);                  
<complete two-sided Groebner basis containing 3 elements>
gap> IndecProjectiveModules(A);                                                
fail
gap> A := kQ/I;                                                                
<Rationals[<quiver with 1 vertices and 2 arrows>]/
<two-sided ideal in <Rationals[<quiver with 1 vertices and 2 arrows>]>, 
  (3 generators)>>
gap> IndecProjectiveModules(A);
[ <[ 4 ]> ]

Note that the instruction A := kQ/relations; used in Introduction is exactly an abbreviation for a sequence of instructions with Groebner basis as in above example.

Most QPA operations working on algebras handle path algebras and quotients of path algebras in the same way (when this makes sense). However, there are still a few operations which does not work properly when given a quotient of a path algebra. When constructing a quotient of a path algebra one needs define the ideal one is factoring out. Above this has been done with the commands

 
gap> gens := GeneratorsOfAlgebra(kQ);
[ (1)*v1, (1)*a, (1)*b ]
gap> a := gens[2];
(1)*a
gap> b := gens[3];
(1)*b

The following command makes this process easier.

4.6-1 AssignGeneratorVariables
‣ AssignGeneratorVariables( A )( operation )

Arguments: A -- a quiver algebra.

Returns: Takes a quiver algebra A as an argument and creates variables, say v_1,...,v_n for the vertices, and a_1,...,a_t for the arrows for the corresponding elements in A, whenever the quiver for the quiver algebra A is was constructed with the vertices being named v_1,...,v_n and the arrows being named a_1,...,a_t.

Here is an example of its use.

 
gap> AssignGeneratorVariables(kQ);
#I  Assigned the global variables [ v1, a, b ]
gap> v1; a; b;
(1)*v1
(1)*a
(1)*b

4.7 Ideals and operations on ideals

4.7-1 Ideal
‣ Ideal( FQ, elems )( function )

Arguments: FQ -- a path algebra, elems -- a list of elements in FQ.

Returns: the ideal of FQ generated by elems with the property IsIdealInPathAlgebra (4.8-2).

For more on ideals, see the GAP reference manual (Chapter 60.6).
Technical info: Ideal is a synonym for a global GAP function TwoSidedIdeal which calls an operation TwoSidedIdealByGenerators (synonym IdealByGenerators) for an algebra (FLMLOR).

gap> gb := GBNPGroebnerBasis(relations,kQ);
[ (1)*a^2, (-1)*a*b+(1)*b*a, (1)*b^2 ]
gap> I := Ideal(kQ,gb);
<two-sided ideal in <Rationals[<quiver with 1 vertices and 2 arrows>]>
    , (3 generators)>
gap> GroebnerBasis(I,gb);
<complete two-sided Groebner basis containing 3 elements>
gap> IndecProjectiveModules(A);
[ <[ 4 ]> ]
gap> A := kQ/I;
<Rationals[<quiver with 1 vertices and 2 arrows>]/
<two-sided ideal in <Rationals[<quiver with 1 vertices and 2 arrows>]>
    , (3 generators)>>
gap> IndecProjectiveModules(A);
[ <[ 4 ]> ]
true

4.7-2 IdealOfQuotient
‣ IdealOfQuotient( A )( attribute )

Arguments: A -- a quiver algebra.

Returns: the ideal in the path algebra kQ from which A was constructed.

4.7-3 PathsOfLengthTwo
‣ PathsOfLengthTwo( Q )( operation )

Arguments: Q -- a quiver.

Returns: a list of all paths of length two in Q, sorted by <. Fails with error message if Q is not a Quiver object.

4.7-4 NthPowerOfArrowIdeal
‣ NthPowerOfArrowIdeal( FQ, n )( operation )

Arguments: FQ -- a path algebra, n -- a positive integer.

Returns: the ideal generated all the paths of length n in FQ.

4.7-5 AddNthPowerToRelations
‣ AddNthPowerToRelations( FQ, rels, n )( operation )

Arguments: FQ -- a path algebra, rels -- a (possibly empty) list of elements in FQ, n -- a positive integer.

Returns: the list rels with the paths of length n of FQ appended (will change the list rels).

4.7-6 \in
‣ \in( elt, I )( operation )

Arguments: elt - an element in a path algebra, I - an ideal in the same path algebra (i.e. with IsIdealInPathAlgebra (4.8-2) property).

Returns: true, if elt belongs to I.

It performs the membership test for an ideal in path algebra using completely reduced Groebner bases machinery.
Technical info: For the efficiency reasons, it computes Groebner basis for I only if it has not been computed yet. Similarly, it performs CompletelyReduceGroebnerBasis only if it has not been reduced yet. The method can change the existing Groebner basis.
Remark: It works only in case I is in the arrow ideal.

4.8 Categories and properties of ideals

4.8-1 IsAdmissibleIdeal
‣ IsAdmissibleIdeal( I )( property )

Arguments: I -- an IsIdealInPathAlgebra object.

Returns: true whenever I is an admissible ideal in a path algebra, i.e. I is a subset of J^2 and I contains J^n for some n, where J is the arrow ideal.

Technical note: The second condition is checked by the nilpotency index of the radical and checking if the ideal generated by the arrows to one plus this index is in the ideal of the relations (this uses Groebner bases machinery).

4.8-2 IsIdealInPathAlgebra
‣ IsIdealInPathAlgebra( I )( property )

Arguments: I -- an IsFLMLOR object.

Returns: true whenever I is an ideal in a path algebra.

4.8-3 IsMonomialIdeal
‣ IsMonomialIdeal( I )( property )

Arguments: I -- an IsIdealInPathAlgebra object.

Returns: true whenever I is a monomial ideal in a path algebra, i.e. I is generated by a set of monomials (= "zero-relations").

Technical note: It uses the observation: I is a monomial ideal iff Groebner basis of I is a set of monomials. It computes Groebner basis for I only in case it has not been computed yet and a usual set of generators (GeneratorsOfIdeal) is not a set of monomials.

4.8-4 IsQuadraticIdeal
‣ IsQuadraticIdeal( rels )( operation )

Arguments: rels -- a list of elements in a path algebra.

Returns: true whenever rels is a list of elements in the linear span of degree two elements of a path algebra. It returns false whenever rels is a list of elements in a path algebra, but not in the linear span of degree two of a path algebra. Otherwise it returns fail.

4.9 Operations on ideals

4.9-1 ProductOfIdeals
‣ ProductOfIdeals( I, J )( operation )

Arguments: I, J -- two ideals in a path algebra KQ.

Returns: the ideal formed by the product of the ideals I and J, whenever the ideal J admits finitely many nontips in KQ.

The function checks if the two ideals are ideals in the same path algebra and that J admits finitely many nontips in KQ.

4.9-2 QuadraticPerpOfPathAlgebraIdeal
‣ QuadraticPerpOfPathAlgebraIdeal( rels )( operation )

Arguments: rels -- a list of elements in a path algebra.

Returns: fail if rels is not a list of elements in the linear span of degree two elements of a path algebra KQ. Otherwise it returns a list of length two, where the first element is a set of generators for the ideal rels^\perp in opposite algebra of KQ and the second element is the opposite algebra of KQ.

4.10 Attributes of ideals

For many of the functions related to quotients, you will need to compute a Groebner basis of the ideal. This is done with the GBNP package. The following example shows how to set a Groebner basis for an ideal (note that this must be done before the quotient is constructed). See the next two chapters for more on Groebner bases.

gap> rels := [FQ.a - FQ.b*FQ.c, FQ.d*FQ.d];
[ (1)*a+(-1)*b*c, (1)*d^2 ]
gap> gb := GBNPGroebnerBasis(rels, FQ); 
[ (-1)*a+(1)*b*c, (1)*d^2 ]
gap> I := Ideal(FQ, gb);
<two-sided ideal in <Rationals[<quiver with 2 vertices and 4 arrows>]>
    , (2 generators)>
gap> GroebnerBasis(I, gb);
<complete two-sided Groebner basis containing 2 elements>
gap> quot := FQ/I;
<Rationals[<quiver with 2 vertices and 4 arrows>]/
<two-sided ideal in <Rationals[<quiver with 2 vertices and 4 arrows>]>
    , (2 generators)>>

4.10-1 GroebnerBasisOfIdeal
‣ GroebnerBasisOfIdeal( I )( attribute )

Arguments: I -- an ideal in path algebra.

Returns: a Groebner basis of ideal I (if it has been already computed!).

This attribute is set only by an operation GroebnerBasis (5.1-2).

4.11 Categories and Properties of Quotients of Path Algebras

4.11-1 IsAdmissibleQuotientOfPathAlgebra
‣ IsAdmissibleQuotientOfPathAlgebra( A )( filter )

Arguments: A -- any object.

Returns: true whenever A is a quotient of a path algebra by an admissible ideal constructed by the command \/ with arguments a path algebra and a list of relations, KQ/rels, where rels is a list of relations. Otherewise it returns an error message.

4.11-2 IsQuotientOfPathAlgebra
‣ IsQuotientOfPathAlgebra( object )( property )

Argument: object -- any object in GAP.

Returns: true whenever object is a quotient of a path algebra.

gap> quot := FQ/I;
<Rationals[<quiver with 2 vertices and 4 arrows>]/
<two-sided ideal in <Rationals[<quiver with 2 vertices and 4 arrows>]>
    , (2 generators)>>
gap> IsQuotientOfPathAlgebra(quot);
true
gap> IsQuotientOfPathAlgebra(FQ);
false

4.11-3 IsFiniteDimensional
‣ IsFiniteDimensional( A )( property )

Arguments: A -- a path algebra or a quotient of a path algebra.

Returns: true whenever A is a finite dimensional algebra.

Technical note: For a path algebra it uses a standard GAP method. For a quotient of a path algebra it uses Groebner bases machinery (it computes Groebner basis for the ideal only in case it has not been computed yet).

4.11-4 IsCanonicalAlgebra
‣ IsCanonicalAlgebra( A )( property )

Arguments: A -- a path algebra or a quotient of a path algebra.

Returns: true if A has been constructed by the operation CanonicalAlgebra (4.14-1), otherwise "Error, no method found".

4.11-5 IsDistributiveAlgebra
‣ IsDistributiveAlgebra( A )( property )

Arguments: A -- a path algebra or a quotient of a path algebra.

Returns: true if A is an admissible quotient of a path algebra and distributive. Otherwise it returns false if A is an admissible quotient of a path algebra and distributive. If A is a quotient of a path algebra, but not an admissible quotient, then it looks for other methods. There are not further methods implemented in QPA as of now.

4.11-6 IsFiniteGlobalDimensionAlgebra
‣ IsFiniteGlobalDimensionAlgebra( A )( property )

Arguments: A - an algebra over a field.

Returns: true if it is known that the entered algebra A has finite global dimension.

There is no method associated to this, so if it is not known that the algebra has finite global dimension, then an error message saying "no method found!" is return.

4.11-7 IsGentleAlgebra
‣ IsGentleAlgebra( A )( property )

Arguments: A -- a path algebra or a quotient of a path algebra.

Returns: true if the algebra A is a gentle algebra. Otherwise false.

4.11-8 IsGorensteinAlgebra
‣ IsGorensteinAlgebra( A )( property )

Arguments: A -- an algebra.

Returns: true if it is known that A is a Gorenstein algebra. If unknown it returns an error message saying "no method found!".

There is no method installed for this yet.

4.11-9 IsHereditaryAlgebra
‣ IsHereditaryAlgebra( A )( property )

Arguments: A -- an admissible quotient of a path algebra.

Returns: true if A is a hereditary algebra and false otherwise.

4.11-10 IsKroneckerAlgebra
‣ IsKroneckerAlgebra( A )( property )

Arguments: A -- a path algebra or a quotient of a path algebra.

Returns: true if A has been constructed by the operation KroneckerAlgebra (4.14-2), otherwise "Error, no method found".

4.11-11 IsMonomialAlgebra
‣ IsMonomialAlgebra( A )( property )

Arguments: A -- a quiver algebra.

Returns: true when A is given as kQ/I and I is a monomial ideal in kQ, otherwise it returns false.

4.11-12 IsNakayamaAlgebra
‣ IsNakayamaAlgebra( A )( property )

Arguments: A -- a path algebra or a quotient of a path algebra.

Returns: true if A has been constructed by the operation NakayamaAlgebra (4.14-3), otherwise "Error, no method found".

4.11-13 IsQuiverAlgebra
‣ IsQuiverAlgebra( A )( filter )

Arguments: A -- an algebra.

Returns: true if A is a path algebra or a quotient of a path algebra algebra, otherwise false.

4.11-14 IsRadicalSquareZeroAlgebra
‣ IsRadicalSquareZeroAlgebra( A )( property )

Arguments: A -- an algebra.

Returns: true if A is a radical square zero algebra, otherwise false.

4.11-15 IsSchurianAlgebra
‣ IsSchurianAlgebra( A )( property )

Arguments: A -- a path algebra or a quotient of a path algebra.

Returns: true if A is a schurian algebra. By definition it means that: for all x,y\in Q_0 we have \dim A(x,y)\leq 1 .

Note: This method fail when a Groebner basis for ideal has not been computed before creating a quotient!

4.11-16 IsSelfinjectiveAlgebra
‣ IsSelfinjectiveAlgebra( A )( property )

Arguments: A -- a path algebra or a quotient of a path algebra.

Returns: fail if A is not finite dimensional. Otherwise it returns true or false according to whether A is selfinjective or not.

4.11-17 IsSemicommutativeAlgebra
‣ IsSemicommutativeAlgebra( A )( property )

Arguments: A -- a path algebra or a quotient of a path algebra.

Returns: true if A is a semicommutative algebra. By definition it means that:
1. A is schurian (cf. IsSchurianAlgebra (4.11-15)).
2. Quiver Q of A is acyclic (cf. IsAcyclicQuiver (3.3-2)).
3. For all pairs of vertices (x,y) the following condition is satisfied: for every two paths P,P' from x to y: P\in I \Leftrightarrow P'\in I.

Note: This method fail when a Groebner basis for ideal has not been computed before creating a quotient!

4.11-18 IsSemisimpleAlgebra
‣ IsSemisimpleAlgebra( A )( property )

Arguments: A - an algebra over a field.

Returns: true if the entered algebra A is semisimple, false otherwise.

Checks if the algebra is finite dimensional. If it is an admissible quotients of a path algebra, it only checks if the underlying quiver has any arrows or not. Otherwise, it computes the radical of the algebra and checks if it is zero.

4.11-19 IsSpecialBiserialAlgebra
‣ IsSpecialBiserialAlgebra( A )( property )

Arguments: A -- a path algebra or a quotient of a path algebra.

Returns: true whenever A is a special biserial algebra, i.e. A=KQ/I, where Q is IsSpecialBiserialQuiver (4.14-5), I is an admissible ideal (IsAdmissibleIdeal (4.8-1)) and I satisfies the "special biserial" conditions, i.e.:

Note: e.g. a path algebra of one loop IS NOT special biserial, but one loop IS special biserial quiver (see IsSpecialBiserialQuiver (4.14-5) for examples).

4.11-20 IsStringAlgebra
‣ IsStringAlgebra( A )( property )

Arguments: A -- a path algebra or a quotient of a path algebra.

Returns: true whenever A is a string (special biserial) algebra, i.e. A=KQ/I is a special biserial algebra (IsSpecialBiserialAlgebra (4.11-19) and I is generated by monomials (= "zero-relations") (cf. IsMonomialIdeal (4.8-3)). See IsSpecialBiserialQuiver (4.14-5) for examples.

4.11-21 IsSymmetricAlgebra
‣ IsSymmetricAlgebra( A )( property )

Arguments: A -- a path algebra or a quotient of a path algebra.

Returns: fail if A is not finite dimensional or does not have a Groebner basis. Otherwise it returns true or false according to whether A is symmetric or not.

4.11-22 IsTriangularReduced
‣ IsTriangularReduced( A )( property )

Arguments: A - a finite dimensional QuiverAlgebra.

Returns: false if the algebra A is triangular reducable, that is, there is a sum over vertices e such that eA(1 - e) = (0) for e≠ 0,1. Otherwise, it returns true.

The function checks if the algebra A is finite dimensional and gives an error message otherwise.

4.11-23 IsWeaklySymmetricAlgebra
‣ IsWeaklySymmetricAlgebra( A )( property )

Arguments: A -- a path algebra or a quotient of a path algebra.

Returns: fail if A is not finite dimensional or does not have a Groebner basis. Otherwise it returns true or false according to whether A is weakly symmetric or not.

4.11-24 IsFiniteTypeAlgebra
‣ IsFiniteTypeAlgebra( A )( property )

Arguments: A -- a path algebra or a quotient of a path algebra.

Returns: Returns true if A is of finite representation type. Returns false if A is of infinite representation type. Returns fail if we can not determine the representation type (i.e. it impossible from theoretical/algorithmic point of view or a suitable criterion has not been implemented yet; the implementation is in progress). Note: in case A is a path algebra the function is completely implemented.

gap> Q := Quiver(5, [ [1,2,"a"], [2,4,"b"], [3,2,"c"], [2,5,"d"] ]);
<quiver with 5 vertices and 4 arrows>
gap> A := PathAlgebra(Rationals, Q);
<Rationals[<quiver with 5 vertices and 4 arrows>]>
gap> IsFiniteTypeAlgebra(A);
Infinite type!
Quiver is not a (union of) Dynkin quiver(s).
false
gap> quo := A/[A.a*A.b, A.c*A.d];;
gap> IsFiniteTypeAlgebra(quo);
Finite type!
Special biserial algebra with no unoriented cycles in Q.
true 

4.12 Attributes and Operations (for Quotients) of Path Algebras

4.12-1 CartanMatrix
‣ CartanMatrix( A )( operation )

Arguments: A -- a path algebra or a quotient of a path algebra.

Returns: the Cartan matrix of the algebra A, after having checked that A is a finite dimensional quotient of a path algebra.

4.12-2 Centre/Center
‣ Centre/Center( A )( operation )

Arguments: A -- a path algebra or a quotient of a path algebra.

Returns: the centre of the algebra A as a subalgebra.

The function computes the center of A if A is a finite dimensional quotient of a path algebra or A is a path algebra with on restriction on the underlying quiver.

4.12-3 ComplexityOfAlgebra
‣ ComplexityOfAlgebra( A, n )( operation )

Arguments: A -- a path algebra or a quotient of a path algebra, n -- a positive integer.

Returns: an estimate of the complexity of the algebra A.

The function checks if the algebra A is known to have finite global dimension. If so, it returns complexity zero. Otherwise it tries to estimate the complexity in the following way. Recall that if a function f(x) is a polynomial in x, the degree of f(x) is given by lim_n->∞ fraclog |f(n)|log n. So then this function computes an estimate of the maximal complexity of the simple modules over A by approximating the complexity of each simple module S by considering the limit lim_m-> ∞ log fracdim(P(S)(m))log m where P(S)(m) is the m-th projective in a minimal projective resolution of S at stage m. This limit is estimated by fraclog dim(P(S)(n))log n.

4.12-4 CoxeterMatrix
‣ CoxeterMatrix( A )( attribute )

Arguments: A -- a path algebra or a quotient of a path algebra.

Returns: the Coxeter matrix of the algebra A, after having checked that A is a finite dimensional quotient of a path algebra.

4.12-5 CoxeterPolynomial
‣ CoxeterPolynomial( A )( attribute )

Arguments: A -- a path algebra or a quotient of a path algebra.

Returns: the Coxeter polynomial of the algebra A, after having checked that A is a finite dimensional quotient of a path algebra.

4.12-6 Dimension
‣ Dimension( A )( attribute )

Arguments: A -- a path algebra or a quotient of a path algebra.

Returns: the dimension of the algebra A or infinity in case A is an infinite dimensional algebra.

For a quotient of a path algebra it uses Groebner bases machinery (it computes Groebner basis for the ideal only in case it has not been computed yet).

4.12-7 GlobalDimension
‣ GlobalDimension( A )( attribute )

Arguments: A -- an algebra.

Returns: the global dimension of the algebra A if it is known. Otherwise it returns an error message saying "no method found!".

There is no method installed for this yet.

4.12-8 LoewyLength
‣ LoewyLength( A )( attribute )

Arguments: A -- a path algebra or a quotient of a path algebra.

Returns: fail if A is not finite dimensional. Otherwise it returns the Loewy length of the algebra A.

4.12-9 NakayamaAutomorphism
‣ NakayamaAutomorphism( A )( attribute )

Arguments: A -- a path algebra or a quotient of a path algebra.

Returns: false if A is not selfinjective algebra. Otherwise it returns the Nakayama automorphism of A.

4.12-10 NakayamaPermutation
‣ NakayamaPermutation( A )( attribute )

Arguments: A -- a path algebra or a quotient of a path algebra.

Returns: false if A is not selfinjective algebra. Otherwise it returns a list of two elements where the first is the Nakayama permutation on the simple modules and the second is the Nakayama permutation on the index set of the simple modules of A.

4.12-11 OrderOfNakayamaAutomorphism
‣ OrderOfNakayamaAutomorphism( A )( attribute )

Arguments: A -- a path algebra or a quotient of a path algebra.

Returns: false if A is not selfinjective algebra. Otherwise it returns the order of the Nakayama autormorphism of A.

4.12-12 RadicalSeriesOfAlgebra
‣ RadicalSeriesOfAlgebra( A )( attribute )

Arguments: A -- an algebra.

Returns: the radical series of the algebra A in a list, where the first element is the algebra A itself, then radical of A, radical square of A, and so on.

4.13 Attributes and Operations on Elements of Quotients of Path Algebra

4.13-1 IsElementOfQuotientOfPathAlgebra
‣ IsElementOfQuotientOfPathAlgebra( object )( property )

Arguments: object -- any object in GAP.

Returns: true whenever object is an element of some quotient of a path algebra.

gap> elem := quot.a*quot.b;
[(1)*a*b]
gap> IsElementOfQuotientOfPathAlgebra(elem);
true
gap> IsElementOfQuotientOfPathAlgebra(FQ.a*FQ.b);    
false 

4.13-2 Coefficients
‣ Coefficients( B, element )( operation )

Arguments: B, element -- a basis for a quotient of a path algebra and element thereof.

Returns: the coefficients of the element in terms of the canonical basis B of the quotient of a path algebra in which element is an element.

4.13-3 IsNormalForm
‣ IsNormalForm( element )( operation )

Arguments: element -- an element of a path algebra.

Returns: true if element is known to be in normal form.

 
 gap> IsNormalForm(elem);  
 true  

4.13-4 <
‣ <( a, b )( operation )

Arguments: a and b -- elements from a path algebra.

Returns: true whenever a < b.

4.13-5 ElementOfQuotientOfPathAlgebra
‣ ElementOfQuotientOfPathAlgebra( family, element, computenormal )( operation )

Arguments: family -- a family of elements, element -- an element of a path algebra, computenormal -- true or false.

Returns: The projection of element into the quotient given by family. If computenormal is true, then the normal form of the projection of element is returned.

family is the ElementsFamily of the family of the algebra element is projected into.

4.13-6 OriginalPathAlgebra
‣ OriginalPathAlgebra( algebra )( attribute )

Arguments: algebra -- an algebra.

Returns: a path algebra.

If algebra is a quotient of a path algebra or just a path algebra itself, the returned algebra is the path algebra it was constructed from. Otherwise it returns an error saying that the algebra entered was not given as a quotient of a path algebra.

4.14 Predefined classes and classes of (quotients of) path algebras

4.14-1 CanonicalAlgebra
‣ CanonicalAlgebra( field, weights[, relcoeff] )( operation )

Arguments: field -- a field, weights -- a list of positive integers, [, relcoeff -- a list of non-zero elements in the field.

Returns: the canonical algebra over the field with the quiver given by the weight sequence weights and the relations given by the coefficients relcoeff.

It function checks if all the weights are greater or equal to two, the number of weights is at least two, the number of coefficients is the number of weights - 2, the coefficients for the relations are in field and non-zero. If only the two first arguments are given, then the number of weights must be two.

4.14-2 KroneckerAlgebra
‣ KroneckerAlgebra( field, n )( operation )

Arguments: field -- a field, n -- a positive integer.

Returns: the n-Kronecker algebra over the field field.

It function checks if the number n of arrows is greater or equal to two and returns an error message if not.

4.14-3 NakayamaAlgebra
‣ NakayamaAlgebra( admiss-seq, field )( function )

Arguments: field -- a field, admiss-seq -- a list of positive integers.

Returns: the Nakayama algebra corresponding to the admissible sequence admiss-seq over the field field. If the entered sequence is not an admissible sequence, the sequence is returned.

The admiss-seq consists of the dimensions of the projective representations.

 
gap> alg := NakayamaAlgebra([2,1], Rationals);
<Rationals[<quiver with 2 vertices and 1 arrows>]>
gap> QuiverOfPathAlgebra(alg);
<quiver with 2 vertices and 1 arrows>

4.14-4 TruncatedPathAlgebra
‣ TruncatedPathAlgebra( F, Q, n )( operation )

Arguments: F -- a field, Q -- a quiver, n -- a positive integer.

Returns: the truncated path algebra KQ/I, where I is the ideal generated by all paths of length n in KQ.

4.14-5 IsSpecialBiserialQuiver
‣ IsSpecialBiserialQuiver( Q )( property )

Arguments: Q -- a quiver.

Returns: true whenever Q is a "special biserial" quiver, i.e. every vertex in Q is a source (resp. target) of at most 2 arrows.

Note: e.g. a path algebra of one loop IS NOT special biserial, but one loop IS special biserial quiver (cf. IsSpecialBiserialAlgebra (4.11-19) and also an Example below).

gap> Q := Quiver(1, [ [1,1,"a"], [1,1,"b"] ]);;  
gap> A := PathAlgebra(Rationals, Q);;
gap> IsSpecialBiserialAlgebra(A); IsStringAlgebra(A);
false
false
gap> rel1 := [A.a*A.b, A.a^2, A.b^2];  
[ (1)*a*b, (1)*a^2, (1)*b^2 ]
gap> quo1 := A/rel1;;
gap> IsSpecialBiserialAlgebra(quo1); IsStringAlgebra(quo1);
true
true
gap> rel2 := [A.a*A.b-A.b*A.a, A.a^2, A.b^2];  
[ (1)*a*b+(-1)*b*a, (1)*a^2, (1)*b^2 ]
gap> quo2 := A/rel2;;
gap> IsSpecialBiserialAlgebra(quo2); IsStringAlgebra(quo2);
true
false
gap> rel3 := [A.a*A.b+A.b*A.a, A.a^2, A.b^2, A.b*A.a];   
[ (1)*a*b+(1)*b*a, (1)*a^2, (1)*b^2, (1)*b*a ]
gap> quo3 := A/rel3;;
gap> IsSpecialBiserialAlgebra(quo3); IsStringAlgebra(quo3);
true
true
gap> rel4 := [A.a*A.b, A.a^2, A.b^3]; 
[ (1)*a*b, (1)*a^2, (1)*b^3 ]
gap> quo4 := A/rel4;;
gap> IsSpecialBiserialAlgebra(quo4); IsStringAlgebra(quo4);
false
false 

4.15 Opposite algebras

4.15-1 OppositePath
‣ OppositePath( p )( operation )

Arguments: p -- a path.

Returns: the path corresponding to p in the opposite quiver.

The following example illustrates the use of OppositeQuiver (3.5-9) and OppositePath.

gap> Q := Quiver( [ "u", "v" ], [ [ "u", "u", "a" ], 
>              [ "u", "v", "b" ] ] );
<quiver with 2 vertices and 2 arrows>
gap> Qop := OppositeQuiver(Q);
<quiver with 2 vertices and 2 arrows>
gap> VerticesOfQuiver( Qop );
[ u_op, v_op ]
gap> ArrowsOfQuiver( Qop );
[ a_op, b_op ]
gap> OppositePath( Q.a * Q.b );
b_op*a_op
gap> IsIdenticalObj( Q, OppositeQuiver( Qop ) );
true
gap> OppositePath( Qop.b_op * Qop.a_op );
a*b

4.15-2 OppositePathAlgebra
‣ OppositePathAlgebra( A )( attribute )

Arguments: A -- a path algebra or quotient of path algebra.

Returns: the opposite algebra A^op.

This attribute contains the opposite algebra of an algebra.

The opposite algebra of a path algebra is the path algebra over the opposite quiver (as given by OppositeQuiver (3.5-9)). The opposite algebra of a quotient of a path algebra has the opposite quiver and the opposite relations of the original algebra.

The function OppositePathAlgebraElement (4.15-3) takes an algebra element to the corresponding element in the opposite algebra.

The opposite of the opposite of an algebra A is isomorphic to A. In QPA, we regard these two algebras to be the same, so the call OppositePathAlgebra(OppositePathAlgebra(A)) returns the object A.

4.15-3 OppositePathAlgebraElement
‣ OppositePathAlgebraElement( x )( function )

Arguments: x -- a path.

Returns: the element corresponding to x in the opposite algebra.

The following example illustrates the use of OppositePathAlgebra (4.15-2) and OppositePathAlgebraElement.

gap> Q := Quiver( [ "u", "v" ], [ [ "u", "u", "a" ], 
>              [ "u", "v", "b" ] ] );
<quiver with 2 vertices and 2 arrows>
gap> A := PathAlgebra( Rationals, Q );
<Rationals[<quiver with 2 vertices and 2 arrows>]>
gap> OppositePathAlgebra( A );
<Rationals[<quiver with 2 vertices and 2 arrows>]>
gap> OppositePathAlgebraElement( A.u + 2*A.a + 5*A.a*A.b );
(1)*u_op+(2)*a_op+(5)*b_op*a_op
gap> IsIdenticalObj( A, 
>         OppositePathAlgebra( OppositePathAlgebra( A ) ) );
true

4.16 Tensor products of path algebras

If Λ and Γ are quotients of path algebras over the same field F, then their tensor product Λ tensor_F Γ is also a quotient of a path algebra over F.

The quiver for the tensor product path algebra is the QuiverProduct (4.16-1) of the quivers of the original algebras.

The operation TensorProductOfAlgebras (4.16-6) computes the tensor products of two quotients of path algebras as a quotient of a path algebra.

4.16-1 QuiverProduct
‣ QuiverProduct( Q1, Q2 )( operation )

Arguments: Q1 and Q2 -- quivers.

Returns: the product quiver Q1 quiverproduct Q2.

A vertex in Q1 quiverproduct Q2 which is made by combining a vertex named u in Q1 with a vertex v in Q2 is named u_v. Arrows are named similarly (they are made by combining an arrow from one quiver with a vertex from the other).

4.16-2 QuiverProductDecomposition
‣ QuiverProductDecomposition( Q )( attribute )

Arguments: Q -- a quiver.

Returns: the original quivers Q is a product of, if Q was created by the QuiverProduct (4.16-1) operation.

The value of this attribute is an object in the category IsQuiverProductDecomposition (4.16-3).

4.16-3 IsQuiverProductDecomposition
‣ IsQuiverProductDecomposition( object )( category )

Arguments: object -- any object in GAP.

Category for objects containing information about the relation between a product quiver and the quivers it is a product of. The quiver factors can be extracted from the decomposition object by using the [] notation (like accessing elements of a list). The decomposition object is also used by the operations IncludeInProductQuiver (4.16-4) and ProjectFromProductQuiver (4.16-5).

4.16-4 IncludeInProductQuiver
‣ IncludeInProductQuiver( L, Q )( operation )

Arguments: L -- a list containing the paths q_1 and q_2, Q -- a product quiver.

Returns: a path in Q.

Includes paths q_1 and q_2 from two quivers into the product of these quivers, Q. If at least one of q_1 and q_2 is a vertex, there is exactly one possible inclusion. If they are both non-trivial paths, there are several possibilities. This operation constructs the path which is the inclusion of q_1 at the source of q_2 multiplied with the inclusion of q_2 at the target of q_1.

4.16-5 ProjectFromProductQuiver
‣ ProjectFromProductQuiver( i, p )( operation )

Arguments: i -- a positive integer, p -- a path in the product quiver.

Returns: the projection of the product quiver path p to one of the factors. Which factor it should be projected to is specified by the argument i.

The following example shows how the operations related to quiver products are used.

gap> q1 := Quiver( [ "u1", "u2" ], [ [ "u1", "u2", "a" ] ] );
<quiver with 2 vertices and 1 arrows>
gap> q2 := Quiver( [ "v1", "v2", "v3" ],
                      [ [ "v1", "v2", "b" ],
                        [ "v2", "v3", "c" ] ] );
<quiver with 3 vertices and 2 arrows>
gap> q1_q2 := QuiverProduct( q1, q2 );
<quiver with 6 vertices and 7 arrows>
gap> q1_q2.u1_b * q1_q2.a_v2;
u1_b*a_v2
gap> IncludeInProductQuiver( [ q1.a, q2.b * q2.c ], q1_q2 );
a_v1*u2_b*u2_c
gap> ProjectFromProductQuiver( 2, q1_q2.a_v1 * q1_q2.u2_b * q1_q2.u2_c );
b*c
gap> q1_q2_dec := QuiverProductDecomposition( q1_q2 );
<object>
gap> q1_q2_dec[ 1 ];
<quiver with 2 vertices and 1 arrows>
gap> q1_q2_dec[ 1 ] = q1;
true  

4.16-6 TensorProductOfAlgebras
‣ TensorProductOfAlgebras( FQ1, FQ2 )( operation )

Arguments: FQ1 and FQ2 -- (quotients of) path algebras.

Returns: The tensor product of FQ1 and FQ2.

The result is a quotient of a path algebra, whose quiver is the QuiverProduct (4.16-1) of the quivers of the operands.

4.16-7 SimpleTensor
‣ SimpleTensor( L, T )( operation )

Arguments: L -- a list containing two elements x and y of two (quotients of) path algebras, T -- the tensor product of these algebras.

Returns: the simple tensor x tensor y.

x tensor y is in the tensor product T (produced by TensorProductOfAlgebras (4.16-6)).

4.16-8 TensorProductDecomposition
‣ TensorProductDecomposition( T )( attribute )

Arguments: T -- a tensor product of path algebras.

Returns: a list of the factors in the tensor product.

T should be produced by TensorProductOfAlgebras (4.16-6)).

The following example shows how the operations for tensor products of quotients of path algebras are used.

gap> q1 := Quiver( [ "u1", "u2" ], [ [ "u1", "u2", "a" ] ] );
<quiver with 2 vertices and 1 arrows>
gap> q2 := Quiver( [ "v1", "v2", "v3", "v4" ],
>                       [ [ "v1", "v2", "b" ],
>                         [ "v1", "v3", "c" ],
>                         [ "v2", "v4", "d" ],
>                         [ "v3", "v4", "e" ] ] );
<quiver with 4 vertices and 4 arrows>
gap> fq1 := PathAlgebra( Rationals, q1 );
<Rationals[<quiver with 2 vertices and 1 arrows>]>
gap> fq2 := PathAlgebra( Rationals, q2 );
<Rationals[<quiver with 4 vertices and 4 arrows>]>
gap> I := Ideal( fq2, [ fq2.b * fq2.d - fq2.c * fq2.e ] );
<two-sided ideal in <Rationals[<quiver with 4 vertices and 4 arrows>]>
    , (1 generators)>
gap> quot := fq2 / I;
<Rationals[<quiver with 4 vertices and 4 arrows>]/
<two-sided ideal in <Rationals[<quiver with 4 vertices and 4 arrows>]>
    , (1 generators)>>
gap> t := TensorProductOfAlgebras( fq1, quot );
<Rationals[<quiver with 8 vertices and 12 arrows>]/
<two-sided ideal in <Rationals[<quiver with 8 vertices and 
    12 arrows>]>, (6 generators)>>
gap> SimpleTensor( [ fq1.a, quot.b ], t );
[(1)*u1_b*a_v2]
gap> t_dec := TensorProductDecomposition( t );
[ <Rationals[<quiver with 2 vertices and 1 arrows>]>, 
  <Rationals[<quiver with 4 vertices and 4 arrows>]/
    <two-sided ideal in <Rationals[<quiver with 4 vertices and 
        4 arrows>]>, (1 generators)>> ]
gap> t_dec[ 1 ] = fq1;
true

4.16-9 EnvelopingAlgebra
‣ EnvelopingAlgebra( A )( attribute )

Arguments: A -- a (quotient of) a path algebra.

Returns: the enveloping algebra A^e = A^op tensor A of A

4.16-10 IsEnvelopingAlgebra
‣ IsEnvelopingAlgebra( A )( property )

Arguments: A -- an algebra.

Returns: true if and only if A is the result of a call to EnvelopingAlgebra (4.16-9).

4.16-11 AlgebraAsModuleOverEnvelopingAlgebra
‣ AlgebraAsModuleOverEnvelopingAlgebra( A )( attribute )

Arguments: A -- a (quotient of a) path algebra A.

Returns: the algebra A as a right module over the enveloping algebra of A.

4.16-12 DualOfAlgebraAsModuleOverEnvelopingAlgebra
‣ DualOfAlgebraAsModuleOverEnvelopingAlgebra( A )( attribute )

Arguments: A -- a finite dimensional (admissible quotient of) a path algebra A.

Returns: the algebra A as a right module over the enveloping algebra of A.

4.16-13 TrivialExtensionOfQuiverAlgebra
‣ TrivialExtensionOfQuiverAlgebra( A )( attribute )

Arguments: A -- a finite dimensional (admissible quotient of) a path algebra A.

Returns: the trivial extension algebra T(A)=A⊕ D(A) of the entered algebra A.

4.17 Finite dimensional algebras over finite fields

4.17-1 AlgebraAsQuiverAlgebra
‣ AlgebraAsQuiverAlgebra( A )( operation )

Arguments: A - a finite dimensional algebra over a finite field.

Returns: a (quotient of a) path algebra isomorphic to the entered algebra A whenever possible and a list of the images of the vertices and the arrows in this path algebra in A.

The operation only applies when A is a finite dimensional indecomposable algebra over a finite field, otherwise it returns an error message. It checks the algebra A is basic and elementary over some field and otherwise it returns an error message. In the list of images the images of the vertices are listed first and then the images of the arrows.

4.17-2 IsBasicAlgebra
‣ IsBasicAlgebra( A )( property )

Arguments: A - a finite dimensional algebra over a finite field.

Returns: true if the entered algebra A is a (finite dimensional) basic algebra and false otherwise. This method only applies to algebras over finite fields.

4.17-3 IsElementaryAlgebra
‣ IsElementaryAlgebra( A )( property )

Arguments: A - a finite dimensional algebra over a finite field.

Returns: true if the entered algebra A is a (finite dimensional) elementary algebra and false otherwise. This method only applies to algebras over finite fields.

The algebra A need not to be an elementary algebra over the field which it is defined, but be an elementary algebra over a field extension.

4.17-4 PrimitiveIdempotents
‣ PrimitiveIdempotents( A )( attribute )

Arguments: A - a finite dimensional simple algebra over a finite field.

Returns: a complete set of primitive idempotents \{ e_i \} such that A \simeq Ae_1 + ... + Ae_n.

TODO: Understand what this function actually does.

4.18 Algebras

4.18-1 LiftingCompleteSetOfOrthogonalIdempotents
‣ LiftingCompleteSetOfOrthogonalIdempotents( f, e )( operation )

Arguments: map - an algebra homomorphism, idempotents elements in the range of map.

Returns: a complete set of orthogonal idempotents in Source(f) which are liftings of the entered idempotents whenever possible.

The operation only applies when the domain of f is finite dimensional. It checks if the list of elements idempotents is a set complete set of orthogonal idempotents. If some idempotent in idempotents is not in the image of map, then an error message is returned. If all idempotents in idempotents has a preimage, then this operation returns a complete set of orthogonal of idempotents which is a lifting of the idempotents in idempotents to the source of f whenever possible or it returns fail.

4.18-2 LiftingIdempotent
‣ LiftingIdempotent( f, e )( operation )

Arguments: f - an algebra homomorphism, e an element in the range of f.

Returns: an idempotent a in Source(f) such that ImageElm(f, a) = e whenever possible. If e is not in the image of f, an error message is given, and if e does not have a preimage by f fail is returned.

The operation only applies when the domain of f is finite dimensional. It checks if the element e is an idempotent. If e is not in the image of f, then an error message is returned. If e has a preimage, then this operation returns a lifting of e to the source of f whenever possible or it returns fail. Using the algorithm described in the proof of Proposition 27.1 in Anderson and Fuller, Rings and categories of modules, second edition, GMT, Springer-Verlag.

4.19 Saving and reading quotients of path algebras to and from a file

4.19-1 ReadAlgebra
‣ ReadAlgebra( file )( operation )

Arguments: file - a name of a file.

Returns: a finite dimension quotient A of a path algebra saved by command SaveAlgebra to the file file. This function creates the algebra A again, which can be saved to a file again with the function SaveAlgebra.

4.19-2 SaveAlgebra
‣ SaveAlgebra( A, file, option )( operation )

Arguments: A - an algebra, file - a name of a file, option - a string.

Returns: or creates a file with name file, storing the algebra A, which can be open again with the function ReadAlgebra and reconstructed. The last argument overwrite decides if the file file, if it exists already, should be overwritten, not overwritten or the user should be prompted for an answer to this question. The corresponding user inputs are: delete, keep or query.

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