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4 Schunck classes and formations

Sections

  1. Creating Schunck classes
  2. Attributes and operations for Schunck classes
  3. Additional attributes for primitive soluble groups
  4. Creating formations
  5. Attributes and operations for formations
  6. Low level functions for normal subgroups related to residuals

In principle, any group class can be created as generic (group) class, followed by setting the required properties and attributes described in the preceding chapters. For certain standard kinds of group classes, there are additional functions available to accomplish this task, which are described in this and the following chapter.

4.1 Creating Schunck classes

A class C of finite groups is a Schunck class if a finite group G belongs to C if and only if all its primitive factor groups belong to C. In particular, a Schunck class is nonempty and closed with respect to factor groups. By definition, a Schunck class C is determined by the primitive groups which it contains (the basis of C), or by the primitive groups not in C but all of whose proper factor groups belong to C (the boundary of C).

  • SchunckClass(rec) O

    returns a Schunck class defined by the information stored in the record rec. Note that it is the user's responsibility to ensure that rec really defines a Schunck class. rec may have the following components: \in, proj, bound, char, and name. The values bound to these entries, if present, are stored, respectively, in the attributes MemberFunction, ProjectorFunction, BoundaryFunction, Characteristic, and Name, see MemberFunction, ProjectorFunction, BoundaryFunctionm, Characteristic, and Name for the meaning of these attributes.

    At least one of the attributes MemberFunction, ProjectorFunction, or BoundaryFunction must be present in order to be able to compute with a Schunck class.

    gap> nilp := SchunckClass(rec(bound := G -> not IsCyclic(G),
    >        name := "class of all nilpotent groups"));
    class of all nilpotent groups
    gap> DihedralGroup(8) in nilp;
    true
    gap> SymmetricGroup(3) in nilp;
    false
    

    4.2 Attributes and operations for Schunck classes

    In addition to the attributes and operations for generic group classes, for Schunck classes also the following are available:

  • Boundary(class) A

    computes the boundary of class, i. e., the class of all primitive groups which do not belong to class but whose proper factor groups do. The result is a group class.

  • Basis(class) A

    The basis of class consists of the primitive soluble groups in class. The result is a group class.

  • Projector(grp, class) O

    This function returns a class-projector of grp. Note that, at present, methods are only available for finite soluble groups grp, or when class has an attribute ProjectorFunction.

    A subgroup H of the group G is a class-projector of G if H N/N is class-maximal in G/N for all normal subgroups N of G. A subgroup H of G is class-maximal in G if H belongs to class, and there is no subgroup L of G which contains H and lies in class. Note that if class consists of finite soluble groups, then class-projectors exist in every finite soluble group if and only if class is a Schunck class, and in this case all class-projectors of G are conjugate. See DH92, III, 3.21.

    gap> H := SchunckClass(rec(bound := G -> Size(G) = 6));
    SchunckClass(bound:=function( G ) ... end)
    gap> Size(Projector(GL(2,3), H)); 
    16 
    gap> # H-projectors coincide with Sylow subgroups
    gap> U := SchunckClass(rec( # class of all supersoluble groups
    >    bound := G -> not IsPrimeInt( Size(Socle(G)))
    > )); 
    SchunckClass(bound:=function( G ) ... end)
    gap> Size(Projector(SymmetricGroup(4), U));
    6 
    gap> # the projectors are the point stabilizers
    

  • CoveringSubgroup(grp, class) O

    A subgroup H of G is a class-covering subgroup of G if H is a class-projector of L for every subgroup L with HLG. Note that projectors and covering subgroups coincide for Schunck classes of finite soluble groups. At present, methods are only available for finite soluble groups grp.

  • BoundaryFunction(grpclass) A

    If bound, this attribute stores a function func which has been set by the user to define grpclass. func must be a function taking one argument. If the argument is a finite primitive soluble group G, func must return true if G is in the boundary of grpclass, and false if G belongs to grpclass. The behaviour for arguments which are not primitive soluble groups, or which belong neither to grpclass nor to the boundary of grpclass need not be defined. Note that BoundaryFunction should not be used to test whether a given group belongs to the boundary of grpclass. Boundary and/or Basis (see Boundary and Basis), which are defined independently of the way grpclass is defined and will work for all finite soluble groups.

  • ProjectorFunction(grpclass) A

    If bound, ProjectorFunction stores a function func supplied by the user as part of the definition of grpclass. func must be a function taking a group G as the only argument, and returns a grpclass-projector of G. Note that Projector (see Projector), rather than ProjectorFunction, should be used by the user to compute grpclass-projectors.

    4.3 Additional attributes for primitive soluble groups

  • IsPrimitiveSolubleGroup(grp) P
  • IsPrimitiveSoluble(grp) P
  • IsPrimitiveSolvableGroup(grp) P
  • IsPrimitiveSolvable(grp) P

    returns true if grp is primitive and soluble, and false otherwise. An abstract finite group G is primitive if it has a faithful primitive permutation representation, or equivalently, if it has a maximal subgroup M with trivial core. If G is soluble, M complements the unique minimal normal subgroup N of G. Therefore N is the socle as well as the Fitting subgroup of G. A permutation group may be primitive as an abstract group while it is not primitive as a permutation group (cf. IsPrimitive).

  • SocleComplement(grp) A

    If present, this attribute stores a complement of the socle of grp. Currently, there is only a method available for SocleComplement if grp has the property IsPrimitiveSoluble.

    4.4 Creating formations

    A nonempty group class is a formation if it is closed with respect to factor groups and residually closed. A saturated formation is, of course, a formation which is saturated. Note that by the Gaschütz-Lubeseder-Schmid theorem (see e. g. DH92, IV, 4.6), every saturated formation is a local formation. Moreover, every saturated formation is a Schunck class. Therefore a saturated formation admits the operations Boundary, Basis, and Projector.

  • OrdinaryFormation(rec) O

    creates a formation from the record rec. Note that it is the user's responsibility to ensure that rec really defines a formation. rec may have components \in, res, char, and name, whose values are stored in the attributes MemberFunction, ResidualFunction, Characteristic, and Name, respectively, of the new formation. See MemberFunction, ResidualFunction, Characteristic, and Name, respectively, for the meaning of these attributes.

    The following example shows how to construct the formations of all groups of derived length at most 3 and of all groups of exponent dividing 6.

    gap> der3 := OrdinaryFormation(rec(
    >    res := G -> DerivedSubgroup(DerivedSubgroup(DerivedSubgroup(G)))
    > ));
    OrdinaryFormation(res:=function( G ) ... end)
    gap> SymmetricGroup(4) in der3;
    true
    gap> GL(2,3) in der3;
    false
    gap> exp6 := OrdinaryFormation(rec(
    >    \in := G -> 6 mod Exponent(G) = 0,
    >    char := [2,3]));
    OrdinaryFormation(in:=function( G ) ... end)
    

  • SaturatedFormation(rec) O

    creates a saturated formation from the record rec. Note that it is the user's responsibility to ensure that rec really defines a saturated formation. rec may have any components admissible for formations (see OrdinaryFormation) or Schunck classes (see SchunckClass), that is, \in, res, char, proj, bound, locdef, and name, whose values, if bound, are stored in the attributes MemberFunction, ResidualFunction, Characteristic, ProjectorFunction, BoundaryFunction, LocalDefinitionFunction, and Name, respectively. Please refer to MemberFunction, ResidualFunction, Characteristic, ProjectorFunction, BoundaryFunction, LocalDefinitionFunction, and Name for the meaning of these attributes.

    There are also functions FittingFormation and SaturatedFittingFormation to create Fitting formations and saturated Fitting formations; see FittingFormation and SaturatedFittingFormation below for details.

    The following example shows how to construct the saturated formations of all finite nilpotent groups and of all nilpotent-by-abelian groups whose order is not divisible by a prime congruent 3 mod 4, and whose 2-chief factors are central. In the first case, we choose f(p) = (1) for all primes p, so that the f(p)-residual of G is generated by a generating set of G (see LocalDefinitionFunction below). In the second example, we let f(2) = 1, if p ≡ 3 mod 4, we define f(p) = A, the class of all finite abelian groups, and set f(p) = ∅ otherwise.

    gap> nilp := SaturatedFormation(rec(
    >      locdef := function(G, p)
    >          return GeneratorsOfGroup(G);
    >      end));
    SaturatedFormation(locdef:=function( G, p ) ... end)
    gap> form := SaturatedFormation(rec(
    >    locdef := function(G, p)
    >        if p = 2 then
    >           return GeneratorsOfGroup(G);
    >        elif p mod 4 = 3 then
    >           return GeneratorsOfGroup(DerivedSubgroup(G));
    >        else
    >           return fail;
    >        fi;
    >     end));
    SaturatedFormation(locdef:=function( G, p ) ... end)
    gap> Projector(GL(2,3), form);
    Group([ [ [ Z(3), 0*Z(3) ], [ 0*Z(3), Z(3)^0 ] ], 
      [ [ Z(3)^0, Z(3) ], [ 0*Z(3), Z(3)^0 ] ], 
      [ [ Z(3), 0*Z(3) ], [ 0*Z(3), Z(3) ] ] ])
    

  • FormationProduct(form1, form2) O

    The formation product prod of two formations form1 and form2 consists of the groups G such that the form2-residual of G belongs to form1. The product prod is again a formation. If form1 and form2 are saturated formations, the result is a saturated formation. The same is true if the characteristic of form2 is contained in that of form1. This is automatically recognised if the characteristic of form1 is AllPrimes (see AllPrimes). In all other cases, you will have to set the attribute IsSaturated manually, if applicable. Note that in general it is not possible for CRISP to determine if two classes are contained in each other.

    gap> nilp := SaturatedFormation(rec(\in := IsNilpotent, name := "nilp"));
    nilp
    gap> FormationProduct(nilp, der3); # no characteristic known
    FormationProduct(nilp, OrdinaryFormation(res:=function( G ) ... end))
    gap> HasIsSaturated(last);HasCharacteristic(nilp);
    false
    false
    gap> SetCharacteristic(nilp, AllPrimes);
    gap> FormationProduct(nilp, der3); # try with characteristic
    FormationProduct(nilp, OrdinaryFormation(res:=function( G ) ... end))
    gap> IsSaturated(last);
    true
    

  • FittingFormationProduct(fitform1, fitform2) O

    If fitform1 and fitform2 are Fitting formations, the formation product equals the Fitting product (see FittingProduct) of fitform1 and fitform2, which, in turn, equals the class product of fitform1 and fitform2. The latter consists of all groups G having a normal subgroup N in fitform1 such that G /N belongs to fitform2.

    Note that if fitform1 and fitform2 are Fitting formations, then FormationProduct(fitform1, fitform2), FittingProduct(fitform1, fitform2) and FittingFormationProduct(fitform1, fitform2) all return the same mathematical object (but distinct GAP objects), which is, again, a Fitting formation.

    gap> nilp := FittingFormation(rec(\in := IsNilpotent, name := "nilp"));;
    gap> FormationProduct(nilp, nilp);
    FittingFormationProduct(nilp, nilp)
    gap> FittingProduct(nilp, nilp);
    FittingFormationProduct(nilp, nilp)
    gap> FittingFormationProduct(nilp, nilp);
    FittingFormationProduct(nilp, nilp)
    

    4.5 Attributes and operations for formations

    In addition to those available for generic group classes, formations also admit the following attributes and operations. See also Attributes and operations for Schunck classes for additional operations for saturated formations.

  • Residual(grp, form) O
  • Residuum(grp. form) O

    return the form-residual (also called form-residuum) of the group grp. This is the smallest normal subgroup res of grp such that grp /res belongs to form. Note that, unless form has an attribute ResidualFunction, there are presently only methods available for finite soluble groups.

  • ResidualFunction(form) A

    This attribute is part of the definition of form supplied by the user. If present, it must contain a function which computes the form-residual of a given group. In general, such a residual only exists if form is residually closed; cf. IsResiduallyClosed. Note that ResidualFunction, if present, is called by Residual (see Residual). Therefore Residual, which also works for formations without ResidualFunction, should be used by the user to compute form-residuals.

  • LocalDefinitionFunction(form) A

    Let form be a saturated formation with local function f. This attribute, if present, stores a function func supplied by the user as part of the definition of form. func must be a function taking two parameters, a group G and a prime p. If p is in the characteristic of form, this function must return a list list of elements of G, such that the smallest normal subgroup of G containing list is the f(p)-residual of G. If p is not in the characteristic of form, then func(G, p) must return fail for any group G. LocalDefinitionFunction is part of the definition of form and should not be called by the user.

    4.6 Low level functions for normal subgroups related to residuals

  • OneInvariantSubgroupMinWrtQProperty(act, grp, pretest, test, data) O

    Let act be a list or group whose elements act on grp via the caret operator, such that every subgroup of grp invariant under act is normal in grp. Assume that X is a set of act-invariant subgroups of grp containing grp, and such that whenever M and N are act-invariant subgroups with MX and M contained in N, then also NX. Then OneInvariantSubgroupMinWrtQProperty computes an act-invariant subgroup MX such that no act-invariant subgroup of grp contained in M belongs to X. At present, there exist only methods for finite soluble groups grp.

    The class X is described by two functions, pretest and test.

    pretest is a function taking four arguments, U, V, R, and data, where data is just the argument passed to OneInvariantSubgroupMinWrtQProperty (see below for examples). U /V is a chief factor of grp, and R is an act-invariant subgroup of grp containing U which is known to belong to X.

    pretest may return the values true, false, or fail. If it returns true, every act-invariant subgroup N of grp such that V is contained in N and R /N is G-isomorphic with U /V must belong to X. If it returns false, no such act-invariant subgroup N may belong to X.

    test is a function taking three arguments, S, R, and data, where data has been described above. R is a act-invariant subgroup of grp belonging to X, and R /S is a chief factor of grp. The function must return true if S belongs to X, and false otherwise.

    Note that whenever test(S, R, data) is called, pretest(U, V, R, data) has been called before, and has returned fail, where U /V is a chief factor which is G-isomorphic with R /S . Thus test need not repeat tests which have been performed by pretest. In particular, if pretest always returns true or false, test will never be called.

    data is never used or changed by OneInvariantSubgroupMinWrtQProperty, but exists only as a means for passing additional information to or between the functions pretest and test.

    For example, if C is a group class which is closed with respect to factor groups and X is the set of all act-invariant subgroups N of grp with grp /NC, then X satisfies the above properties. In particular, if C is a formation, then OneInvariantSubgroupMinWrtQProperty will return the C-residual of grp.

    The following example shows how to use OneInvariantSubgroupMinWrtQProperty to compute the derived subgroup of a group G. (Note that in practice, this is not a particularly efficient way of computing the derived subgroup.)

    gap> G := DirectProduct(SL(2,3), CyclicGroup(2));;
    gap> data := rec(gens := GeneratorsOfGroup(G),
    >    comms := List(Combinations(GeneratorsOfGroup(G), 2), 
    >       x -> Comm(x[1],x[2])));;
    gap> OneInvariantSubgroupMinWrtQProperty(
    >    G, G,
    >    function(U, V, R, data) # test if U/V is central in G
    >        if ForAny(ModuloPcgs(U, V), y ->
    >           ForAny(data.gens, x -> not Comm(x, y) in V)) then 
    >           return false;
    >        else
    >           return fail;
    >        fi;
    >     end,
    >     function(S, R, data)
    >        return ForAll(data.comms, x -> x in S);
    >     end,
    >     data) = DerivedSubgroup(G); # compare results
    true
    

  • AllInvariantSubgroupsWithQProperty(act, grp, pretest, test, data) O

    AllInvariantSubgroupsWithQProperty returns a list consisting of all act-invariant subgroups in X, where X is the class defined by pretest, test, and data, as described for OneInvariantSubgroupMinWrtQProperty (see OneInvariantSubgroupMinWrtQProperty). At present, there exist only methods for finite soluble groups grp.

    gap> G := GL(2,3);
    GL(2,3)
    gap> normsWithSupersolubleFactorGroups :=
    > AllInvariantSubgroupsWithQProperty(G, G, 
    >    function(U, V, R, data)
    >       return IsPrimeInt(Index(U, V));
    >    end,
    >    ReturnFail, # pretest is sufficient
    >    fail); # no data required
    [ GL(2,3), 
      Group([ [ [ Z(3)^0, Z(3) ], [ 0*Z(3), Z(3)^0 ] ],
          [ [ Z(3), Z(3)^0 ], [ Z(3)^0, Z(3)^0 ] ], 
          [ [ 0*Z(3), Z(3)^0 ], [ Z(3), 0*Z(3) ] ], 
          [ [ Z(3), 0*Z(3) ], [ 0*Z(3), Z(3) ] ] ]), 
      Group([ [ [ Z(3), Z(3)^0 ], [ Z(3)^0, Z(3)^0 ] ], 
          [ [ 0*Z(3), Z(3)^0 ], [ Z(3), 0*Z(3) ] ], 
          [ [ Z(3), 0*Z(3) ], [ 0*Z(3), Z(3) ] ] ]) ]
    

  • OneNormalSubgroupMinWrtQProperty(grp, pretest, test, data) O

    OneNormalSubgroupMinWrtQProperty is a special case of OneInvariantSubgroupMinWrtQProperty (see OneInvariantSubgroupMinWrtQProperty) where act = grp .

  • AllNormalSubgroupsWithQProperty(grp, pretest, test, data) O

    AllNormalSubgroupsWithQProperty is a special case of AllInvariantSubgroupsWithQProperty (see AllInvariantSubgroupsWithQProperty) where act = grp .

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    CRISP manual
    March 2016