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3 Creating digraphs
 3.1 Creating digraphs
 3.2 Changing representations
 3.3 New digraphs from old
 3.4 Random digraphs
 3.5 Standard examples

3 Creating digraphs

In this chapter we describe how to create digraphs.

3.1 Creating digraphs

3.1-1 IsDigraph
‣ IsDigraph( category )

Every digraph in Digraphs belongs to the category IsDigraph. Basic attributes and operations for digraphs are: DigraphVertices (5.1-1), DigraphRange (5.2-4), DigraphSource (5.2-4), OutNeighbours (5.2-5), and DigraphEdges (5.1-3).

3.1-2 IsCayleyDigraph
‣ IsCayleyDigraph( category )

IsCayleyDigraph is a subcategory of IsDigraph. Digraphs that are Cayley digraphs of a group and that are constructed by the operation CayleyDigraph (3.1-10) are constructed in this category.

3.1-3 IsDigraphWithAdjacencyFunction
‣ IsDigraphWithAdjacencyFunction( category )

IsDigraphWithAdjacencyFunction is a subcategory of IsDigraph. Digraphs that are created using an adjacency function are constructed in this category.

3.1-4 DigraphType
‣ DigraphType( global variable )
‣ DigraphFamily( family )

The type of all digraphs is DigraphType. The family of all digraphs is DigraphFamily.

3.1-5 Digraph
‣ Digraph( obj[, source, range] )( operation )
‣ Digraph( list, func )( operation )
‣ Digraph( G, list, act, adj )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

for a list (i.e. an adjacency list)

if obj is a list of lists of positive integers in the range from 1 to Length(obj), then this function returns the digraph with vertices E ^ 0 =[1 .. Length(obj)], and edges corresponding to the entries of obj.

More precisely, there is an edge from vertex i to j if and only if j is in obj[i]; the source of this edge is i and the range is j. If j occurs in obj[i] with multiplicity k, then there are k edges from i to j.

for three lists

if obj is a duplicate-free list, and source and range are lists of equal length consisting of positive integers in the list [1 .. Length(obj)], then this function returns a digraph with vertices E ^ 0 =[1 .. Length(obj)], and Length(source) edges. For each i in [1 .. Length(source)] there exists an edge with source vertex source[i] and range vertex range[i]. See DigraphSource (5.2-4) and DigraphRange (5.2-4).

The vertices of the digraph will be labelled by the elements of obj.

for an integer, and two lists

if obj is an integer, and source and range are lists of equal length consisting of positive integers in the list [1 .. obj], then this function returns a digraph with vertices E ^ 0 =[1 .. obj], and Length(source) edges. For each i in [1 .. Length(source)] there exists an edge with source vertex source[i] and range vertex range[i]. See DigraphSource (5.2-4) and DigraphRange (5.2-4).

for a list and a function

if list is a list and func is a function taking 2 arguments that are elements of list, and func returns true or false, then this operation creates a digraph with vertices [1 .. Length(list)] and an edge from vertex i to vertex j if and only if func(list[i], list[j]) returns true.

for a group, a list, and two functions

The arguments will be G, list, act, adj.

Let G be a group acting on the objects in list via the action act, and let adj be a function taking two objects from list as arguments and returning true or false. The function adj will describe the adjacency between objects from list, which is invariant under the action of G. This variant of the constructor returns a digraph with vertices the objects of list and directed edges [x, y] when f(x, y) is true.

The action of the group G on the objects in list is stored in the attribute DigraphGroup (7.2-5), and is used to speed up operations like DigraphDiameter (5.3-1).

for a Grape package graph

if obj is a Grape package graph (i.e. a record for which the function IsGraph returns true), then this function returns a digraph isomorphic to obj.

for a binary relation

if obj is a binary relation on the points [1 .. n] for some posititve integer n, then this function returns the digraph defined by obj. Specifically, this function returns a digraph which has n vertices, and which has an edge with source i and range j if and only if [i,j] is a pair in the binary relation obj.

gap> gr := Digraph([
> [2, 5, 8, 10], [2, 3, 4, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10], [1],
> [3, 5, 7, 8, 10], [2, 5, 7], [3, 6, 7, 9, 10], [1, 4],
> [1, 5, 9], [1, 2, 7, 8], [3, 5]]);
<multidigraph with 10 vertices, 38 edges>
gap> gr := Digraph(["a", "b", "c"], ["a"], ["b"]);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 1 edge>
gap> gr := Digraph(5, [1, 2, 2, 4, 1, 1], [2, 3, 5, 5, 1, 1]);
<multidigraph with 5 vertices, 6 edges>
gap> Petersen := Graph(SymmetricGroup(5), [[1, 2]], OnSets,
> function(x, y) return Intersection(x, y) = []; end);;
gap> Digraph(Petersen);
<digraph with 10 vertices, 30 edges>
gap> b := BinaryRelationOnPoints(
> [[3], [1, 3, 5], [1], [1, 2, 4], [2, 3, 5]]);
Binary Relation on 5 points
gap> gr := Digraph(b);
<digraph with 5 vertices, 11 edges>
gap> gr := Digraph([1 .. 10], ReturnTrue);
<digraph with 10 vertices, 100 edges>

The next example illustrates the uses of the fourth and fifth variants of this constructor. The resulting digraph is a strongly regular graph, and it is actually the point graph of the van Lint-Schrijver partial geometry, [LS81]. The algebraic description is taken from the seminal paper of Calderbank and Kantor [CK86].

gap> f := GF(3 ^ 4);
GF(3^4)
gap> gamma := First(f, x -> Order(x) = 5);
Z(3^4)^64
gap> L := Union([Zero(f)], List(Group(gamma)));
[ 0*Z(3), Z(3)^0, Z(3^4)^16, Z(3^4)^32, Z(3^4)^48, Z(3^4)^64 ]
gap> omega := Union(List(L, x -> List(Difference(L, [x]), y -> x - y)));
[ Z(3)^0, Z(3), Z(3^4)^5, Z(3^4)^7, Z(3^4)^8, Z(3^4)^13, Z(3^4)^15, 
  Z(3^4)^16, Z(3^4)^21, Z(3^4)^23, Z(3^4)^24, Z(3^4)^29, Z(3^4)^31, 
  Z(3^4)^32, Z(3^4)^37, Z(3^4)^39, Z(3^4)^45, Z(3^4)^47, Z(3^4)^48, 
  Z(3^4)^53, Z(3^4)^55, Z(3^4)^56, Z(3^4)^61, Z(3^4)^63, Z(3^4)^64, 
  Z(3^4)^69, Z(3^4)^71, Z(3^4)^72, Z(3^4)^77, Z(3^4)^79 ]
gap> adj := function(x, y)
>   return x - y in omega;
> end;
function( x, y ) ... end
gap> digraph := Digraph(AsList(f), adj);
<digraph with 81 vertices, 2430 edges>
gap> group := Group(Z(3));
<group with 1 generators>
gap> act := \*;
<Operation "*">
gap> digraph := Digraph(group, List(f), act, adj);
<digraph with 81 vertices, 2430 edges>

3.1-6 DigraphByAdjacencyMatrix
‣ DigraphByAdjacencyMatrix( adj )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

If adj is the adjacency matrix of a digraph in the sense of AdjacencyMatrix (5.2-1), then this operation returns the digraph which is defined by adj.

Alternatively, if adj is a square boolean matrix, then this operation returns the digraph with Length(adj) vertices which has the edge [i,j] if and only if adj[i][j] is true.

gap> DigraphByAdjacencyMatrix([
> [0, 1, 0, 2, 0],
> [1, 1, 1, 0, 1],
> [0, 3, 2, 1, 1],
> [0, 0, 1, 0, 1],
> [2, 0, 0, 0, 0]]);
<multidigraph with 5 vertices, 18 edges>
gap> gr := DigraphByAdjacencyMatrix([
> [true, false, true],
> [false, false, true],
> [false, true, false]]);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 4 edges>
gap> OutNeighbours(gr);
[ [ 1, 3 ], [ 3 ], [ 2 ] ]

3.1-7 DigraphByEdges
‣ DigraphByEdges( edges[, n] )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

If edges is list of pairs of positive integers, then this function returns the digraph with the minimum number of vertices m such that its edges equal edges.

If the optional second argument n is a positive integer with n >= m (with m defined as above), then this function returns the digraph with n vertices and edges edges.

See DigraphEdges (5.1-3).

gap> DigraphByEdges(
> [[1, 3], [2, 1], [2, 3], [2, 5], [3, 6],
>  [4, 6], [5, 2], [5, 4], [5, 6], [6, 6]]);
<digraph with 6 vertices, 10 edges>
gap> DigraphByEdges(
> [[1, 3], [2, 1], [2, 3], [2, 5], [3, 6],
>  [4, 6], [5, 2], [5, 4], [5, 6], [6, 6]], 12);
<digraph with 12 vertices, 10 edges>

3.1-8 EdgeOrbitsDigraph
‣ EdgeOrbitsDigraph( G, edges[, n] )( operation )

Returns: A new digraph.

If G is a permutation group, edges is an edge or list of edges, and n is a non-negative integer such that G fixes [1 .. n] setwise, then this operation returns a new digraph with n vertices and the union of the orbits of the edges in edges under the action of the permutation group G. An edge in this context is simply a pair of positive integers.

If the optional third argument n is not present, then the largest moved point of the permutation group G is used by default.

gap> digraph := EdgeOrbitsDigraph(Group((1, 3), (1, 2)(3, 4)),
>                                 [[1, 2], [4, 5]], 5);
<digraph with 5 vertices, 12 edges>
gap> OutNeighbours(digraph);
[ [ 2, 4, 5 ], [ 1, 3, 5 ], [ 2, 4, 5 ], [ 1, 3, 5 ], [  ] ]
gap> RepresentativeOutNeighbours(digraph);
[ [ 2, 4, 5 ], [  ] ]

3.1-9 DigraphByInNeighbours
‣ DigraphByInNeighbours( in )( operation )
‣ DigraphByInNeighbors( in )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

If in is a list of lists of positive integers in the range [1 .. Length(in)], then this function returns the digraph with vertices E^0=[1 .. Length(in)], and edges corresponding to the entries of in. More precisely, there is an edge with source vertex i and range vertex j if i is in in[j].

If i occurs in in[j] with multiplicity k, then there are k multiple edges from i to j.

See InNeighbours (5.2-6).

gap> gr := DigraphByInNeighbours([
> [2, 5, 8, 10], [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10],
> [1], [3, 5, 7, 8, 10], [2, 5, 7], [3, 6, 7, 9, 10], [1, 4],
> [1, 5, 9], [1, 2, 7, 8], [3, 5]]);
<digraph with 10 vertices, 37 edges>
gap> gr := DigraphByInNeighbours([[2, 3, 2], [1], [1, 2, 3]]);
<multidigraph with 3 vertices, 7 edges>

3.1-10 CayleyDigraph
‣ CayleyDigraph( G[, gens] )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

Let G be any group and let gens be a list of elements of G. This function returns the Cayley graph of the group with respect gens. The vertices are the elements of G. There exists an edge from the vertex u to the vertex v if and only if there exists a generator g in gens such that x * g = y.

If the optional second argument gens is not present, then the generators of G are used by default. The digraph created by this operation belongs to the category IsCayleyDigraph (3.1-2), the group G can be recovered from the digraph using GroupOfCayleyDigraph (5.4-1), and the generators gens can be obtained using GeneratorsOfCayleyDigraph (5.4-2).

gap> G := DihedralGroup(8);
<pc group of size 8 with 3 generators>
gap> CayleyDigraph(G);
<digraph with 8 vertices, 24 edges>
gap> G := DihedralGroup(IsPermGroup, 8);
Group([ (1,2,3,4), (2,4) ])
gap> CayleyDigraph(G);
<digraph with 8 vertices, 16 edges>
gap> digraph := CayleyDigraph(G, [()]);
<digraph with 8 vertices, 8 edges>
gap> GroupOfCayleyDigraph(digraph) = G;
true
gap> GeneratorsOfCayleyDigraph(digraph);
[ () ]

3.2 Changing representations

3.2-1 AsBinaryRelation
‣ AsBinaryRelation( digraph )( operation )

Returns: A binary relation.

If digraph is a digraph with a positive number of vertices n, and no multiple edges, then this operation returns a binary relation on the points [1..n]. The pair [i,j] is in the binary relation if and only if [i,j] is an edge in digraph.

gap> gr := Digraph([[3, 2], [1, 2], [2], [3, 4]]);
<digraph with 4 vertices, 7 edges>
gap> AsBinaryRelation(gr);
Binary Relation on 4 points

3.2-2 AsDigraph
‣ AsDigraph( trans[, n] )( operation )

Returns: A digraph, or fail.

If trans is a transformation, and n is a non-negative integer such that the restriction of trans to [1 .. n] defines a transformation of [1 .. n], then AsDigraph returns the functional digraph with n vertices defined by trans. See IsFunctionalDigraph (6.1-7).

Specifically, the digraph returned by AsDigraph has n edges: for each vertex x in [1 .. n], there is a unique edge with source x; this edge has range x^trans.

If the optional second argument n is not supplied, then the degree of the transformation trans is used by default. If the restriction of trans to [1 .. n] does not define a transformation of [1 .. n], then AsDigraph(trans, n) returns fail.

gap> f := Transformation([4, 3, 3, 1, 7, 9, 10, 4, 2, 3]);
Transformation( [ 4, 3, 3, 1, 7, 9, 10, 4, 2, 3 ] )
gap> AsDigraph(f);
<digraph with 10 vertices, 10 edges>
gap> AsDigraph(f, 4);
<digraph with 4 vertices, 4 edges>
gap> AsDigraph(f, 5);
fail

3.2-3 Graph
‣ Graph( digraph )( operation )

Returns: A Grape package graph.

If digraph is a digraph without multiple edges, then this operation returns a Grape package graph that is isomorphic to digraph.

If digraph is a multidigraph, then since Grape does not support multiple edges, the multiple edges will be reduced to a single edge in the result. In order words, for a multidigraph this operation will return the same as Graph(DigraphRemoveAllMultipleEdges(digraph)).

gap> Petersen := Graph(SymmetricGroup(5), [[1, 2]], OnSets,
> function(x, y) return Intersection(x, y) = []; end);
rec( adjacencies := [ [ 3, 5, 8 ] ], group := Group([ (1,2,3,5,7)
  (4,6,8,9,10), (2,4)(6,9)(7,10) ]), isGraph := true, 
  names := [ [ 1, 2 ], [ 2, 3 ], [ 3, 4 ], [ 1, 3 ], [ 4, 5 ], 
      [ 2, 4 ], [ 1, 5 ], [ 3, 5 ], [ 1, 4 ], [ 2, 5 ] ], 
  order := 10, representatives := [ 1 ], 
  schreierVector := [ -1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2 ] )
gap> Digraph(Petersen);
<digraph with 10 vertices, 30 edges>
gap> Graph(last);
rec( adjacencies := [ [ 3, 5, 8 ] ], group := Group([ (1,2,3,5,7)
  (4,6,8,9,10), (2,4)(6,9)(7,10) ]), isGraph := true, 
  names := [ [ 1, 2 ], [ 2, 3 ], [ 3, 4 ], [ 1, 3 ], [ 4, 5 ], 
      [ 2, 4 ], [ 1, 5 ], [ 3, 5 ], [ 1, 4 ], [ 2, 5 ] ], 
  order := 10, representatives := [ 1 ], 
  schreierVector := [ -1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2 ] )

3.2-4 AsGraph
‣ AsGraph( digraph )( attribute )

Returns: A Grape package graph.

If digraph is a digraph, then this method returns the same as Graph (3.2-3), except that the result will be stored as a mutable attribute of digraph.

If AsGraph(digraph) is called subsequently, then the same GAP object will be returned as before.

gap> d := Digraph([[1, 2], [3], []]);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 3 edges>
gap> g := AsGraph(d);
rec( adjacencies := [ [ 1, 2 ], [ 3 ], [  ] ], group := Group(()), 
  isGraph := true, names := [ 1 .. 3 ], order := 3, 
  representatives := [ 1, 2, 3 ], schreierVector := [ -1, -2, -3 ] )

3.2-5 AsTransformation
‣ AsTransformation( digraph )( attribute )

Returns: A transformation, or fail

If digraph is a functional digraph, then AsTransformation returns the transformation which is defined by digraph. See IsFunctionalDigraph (6.1-7). Otherwise, AsTransformation(digraph) returns fail.

If digraph is a functional digraph with n vertices, then AsTransformation(digraph) will return the transformation f of degree at most n where for each 1 ≤ i ≤ n, i ^ f is equal to the unique out-neighbour of vertex i in digraph.

gap> gr := Digraph([[1], [3], [2]]);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 3 edges>
gap> gr := CycleDigraph(3);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 3 edges>
gap> AsTransformation(gr);
Transformation( [ 2, 3, 1 ] )
gap> AsPermutation(last);
(1,2,3)
gap> gr := Digraph([[2, 3], [], []]);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 2 edges>
gap> AsTransformation(gr);
fail

3.3 New digraphs from old

3.3-1 DigraphCopy
‣ DigraphCopy( digraph )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

This function returns a new copy of digraph, retaining none of the attributes or properties of digraph.

gap> gr := CycleDigraph(10);
<digraph with 10 vertices, 10 edges>
gap> DigraphCopy(gr) = gr;
true

3.3-2 InducedSubdigraph
‣ InducedSubdigraph( digraph, verts )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

If digraph is a digraph, and verts is a subset of the vertices of digraph, then this operation returns a digraph constructed from digraph by retaining precisely those vertices in verts, and those edges whose source and range vertices are both contained in verts.

The vertices of the induced subdigraph are [1..Length(verts)] but the original vertex labels can be accessed via DigraphVertexLabels (5.1-9).

gap> gr := Digraph([[1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 4], [1, 3, 4], [3, 1], [1, 1]]);
<multidigraph with 4 vertices, 13 edges>
gap> InducedSubdigraph(gr, [1, 3, 4]);
<multidigraph with 3 vertices, 9 edges>
gap> DigraphVertices(last);
[ 1 .. 3 ]

3.3-3 ReducedDigraph
‣ ReducedDigraph( digraph )( attribute )

Returns: A digraph.

This function returns a digraph isomorphic to the subdigraph of digraph induced by the set of non-isolated vertices, i.e. the set of those vertices of digraph which are the source or range of some edge in digraph. See InducedSubdigraph (3.3-2).

The vertex and edge labels of the graph are preserved. A vertex in the new digraph can be matched to the corresponding vertex in digraph by using the label.

The ordering of the vertices is preserved.

gap> d := Digraph([[1, 2], [], [], [1, 4], []]);
<digraph with 5 vertices, 4 edges>
gap> r := ReducedDigraph(d);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 4 edges>
gap> OutNeighbours(r);
[ [ 1, 2 ], [  ], [ 1, 3 ] ]
gap> DigraphEdges(d);
[ [ 1, 1 ], [ 1, 2 ], [ 4, 1 ], [ 4, 4 ] ]
gap> DigraphEdges(r);
[ [ 1, 1 ], [ 1, 2 ], [ 3, 1 ], [ 3, 3 ] ]
gap> DigraphVertexLabel(r, 3);
4
gap> DigraphVertexLabel(r, 2);
2

3.3-4 MaximalSymmetricSubdigraph
‣ MaximalSymmetricSubdigraph( digraph )( attribute )
‣ MaximalSymmetricSubdigraphWithoutLoops( digraph )( attribute )

Returns: A digraph.

If digraph is a digraph, then MaximalSymmetricSubdigraph returns a symmetric digraph without multiple edges which has the same vertex set as digraph, and whose edge list is formed from digraph by ignoring the multiplicity of edges, and by ignoring edges [u,v] for which there does not exist an edge [v,u].

The digraph returned by MaximalSymmetricSubdigraphWithoutLoops is the same, except that loops are removed.

See IsSymmetricDigraph (6.1-10), IsMultiDigraph (6.1-8), and DigraphHasLoops (6.1-1) for more information.

gap> gr := Digraph([[2, 2], [1, 3], [4], [3, 1]]);
<multidigraph with 4 vertices, 7 edges>
gap> not IsSymmetricDigraph(gr) and IsMultiDigraph(gr);
true
gap> OutNeighbours(gr);
[ [ 2, 2 ], [ 1, 3 ], [ 4 ], [ 3, 1 ] ]
gap> sym := MaximalSymmetricSubdigraph(gr);
<digraph with 4 vertices, 4 edges>
gap> IsSymmetricDigraph(sym) and not IsMultiDigraph(sym);
true
gap> OutNeighbours(sym);
[ [ 2 ], [ 1 ], [ 4 ], [ 3 ] ]

3.3-5 UndirectedSpanningTree
‣ UndirectedSpanningTree( digraph )( attribute )
‣ UndirectedSpanningForest( digraph )( attribute )

Returns: A digraph, or fail.

If digraph is a digraph with at least one vertex, then UndirectedSpanningForest returns an undirected spanning forest of digraph, otherwise this attribute returns fail. See IsUndirectedSpanningForest (4.1-2) for the definition of an undirected spanning forest.

If digraph is a digraph with at least one vertex and whose MaximalSymmetricSubdigraph (3.3-4) is connected (see IsConnectedDigraph (6.3-2)), then UndirectedSpanningTree returns an undirected spanning tree of digraph, otherwise this attribute returns fail. See IsUndirectedSpanningTree (4.1-2) for the definition of an undirected spanning tree.

Note that for a digraph that has an undirected spanning tree, the attribute UndirectedSpanningTree returns the same digraph as the attribute UndirectedSpanningForest.

gap> gr := Digraph([[1, 2, 1, 3], [1], [4], [3, 4, 3]]);
<multidigraph with 4 vertices, 9 edges>
gap> UndirectedSpanningTree(gr);
fail
gap> forest := UndirectedSpanningForest(gr);
<digraph with 4 vertices, 4 edges>
gap> OutNeighbours(forest);
[ [ 2 ], [ 1 ], [ 4 ], [ 3 ] ]
gap> IsUndirectedSpanningForest(gr, forest);
true
gap> DigraphConnectedComponents(forest).comps;
[ [ 1, 2 ], [ 3, 4 ] ]
gap> DigraphConnectedComponents(MaximalSymmetricSubdigraph(gr)).comps;
[ [ 1, 2 ], [ 3, 4 ] ]
gap> UndirectedSpanningForest(MaximalSymmetricSubdigraph(gr))
> = forest;
true
gap> gr := CompleteDigraph(4);
<digraph with 4 vertices, 12 edges>
gap> tree := UndirectedSpanningTree(gr);
<digraph with 4 vertices, 6 edges>
gap> IsUndirectedSpanningTree(gr, tree);
true
gap> tree = UndirectedSpanningForest(gr);
true
gap> UndirectedSpanningForest(EmptyDigraph(0));
fail

3.3-6 QuotientDigraph
‣ QuotientDigraph( digraph, p )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

If digraph is a digraph, and p is a partition of the vertices of digraph, then this operation returns a new digraph constructed by amalgamating all vertices of digraph which lie in the same part of p.

A partition of the vertices of digraph is a list of non-empty disjoint lists, such that the union of all the sub-lists is equal to the vertex set of digraph. In particular, each vertex must appear in precisely one sub-list.

The vertices of digraph in part i of p will become vertex i in the quotient, and every edge of digraph with source in part i and range in part j becomes an edge from i to j in the quotient. In particular, this means that the quotient of a digraph without multiple edges can have multiple edges.

gap> gr := Digraph([[2, 1], [4], [1], [1, 3, 4]]);
<digraph with 4 vertices, 7 edges>
gap> DigraphVertices(gr);
[ 1 .. 4 ]
gap> DigraphEdges(gr);
[ [ 1, 2 ], [ 1, 1 ], [ 2, 4 ], [ 3, 1 ], [ 4, 1 ], [ 4, 3 ], 
  [ 4, 4 ] ]
gap> p := [[1], [2, 4], [3]];
[ [ 1 ], [ 2, 4 ], [ 3 ] ]
gap> qr := QuotientDigraph(gr, p);
<multidigraph with 3 vertices, 7 edges>
gap> DigraphVertices(qr);
[ 1 .. 3 ]
gap> DigraphEdges(qr);
[ [ 1, 2 ], [ 1, 1 ], [ 2, 2 ], [ 2, 1 ], [ 2, 3 ], [ 2, 2 ], 
  [ 3, 1 ] ]
gap> QuotientDigraph(EmptyDigraph(0), []);
<digraph with 0 vertices, 0 edges>

3.3-7 DigraphReverse
‣ DigraphReverse( digraph )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

If digraph is a digraph, then this operation returns a digraph constructed from digraph by reversing the orientation of every edge.

gap> gr := Digraph([[3], [1, 3, 5], [1], [1, 2, 4], [2, 3, 5]]);
<digraph with 5 vertices, 11 edges>
gap> DigraphReverse(gr);
<digraph with 5 vertices, 11 edges>
gap> OutNeighbours(last);
[ [ 2, 3, 4 ], [ 4, 5 ], [ 1, 2, 5 ], [ 4 ], [ 2, 5 ] ]
gap> gr := Digraph([[2, 4], [1], [4], [3, 4]]);
<digraph with 4 vertices, 6 edges>
gap> DigraphEdges(gr);
[ [ 1, 2 ], [ 1, 4 ], [ 2, 1 ], [ 3, 4 ], [ 4, 3 ], [ 4, 4 ] ]
gap> DigraphEdges(DigraphReverse(gr));
[ [ 1, 2 ], [ 2, 1 ], [ 3, 4 ], [ 4, 1 ], [ 4, 3 ], [ 4, 4 ] ]

3.3-8 DigraphDual
‣ DigraphDual( digraph )( attribute )

Returns: A digraph.

If digraph is a digraph without multiple edges, then this returns the dual of digraph. The dual is sometimes called the complement.

The dual of digraph has the same vertices as digraph, and there is an edge in the dual from i to j whenever there is no edge from i to j in digraph.

gap> gr := Digraph([[2, 3], [], [4, 6], [5], [],
> [7, 8, 9], [], [], []]);
<digraph with 9 vertices, 8 edges>
gap> DigraphDual(gr);
<digraph with 9 vertices, 73 edges>

3.3-9 DigraphSymmetricClosure
‣ DigraphSymmetricClosure( digraph )( attribute )

Returns: A digraph.

If digraph is a digraph, then this attribute gives the minimal symmetric digraph which has the same vertices and contains all the edges of digraph.

A digraph is symmetric if its adjacency matrix AdjacencyMatrix (5.2-1) is symmetric. For a digraph with multiple edges this means that there are the same number of edges from a vertex u to a vertex v as there are from v to u; see IsSymmetricDigraph (6.1-10).

gap> gr := Digraph([[1, 2, 3], [2, 4], [1], [3, 4]]);
<digraph with 4 vertices, 8 edges>
gap> gr1 := DigraphSymmetricClosure(gr);
<digraph with 4 vertices, 11 edges>
gap> IsSymmetricDigraph(gr1);
true
gap> List(OutNeighbours(gr1), AsSet);
[ [ 1, 2, 3 ], [ 1, 2, 4 ], [ 1, 4 ], [ 2, 3, 4 ] ]
gap> gr := Digraph([[2, 2], [1]]);
<multidigraph with 2 vertices, 3 edges>
gap> gr1 := DigraphSymmetricClosure(gr);
<multidigraph with 2 vertices, 4 edges>
gap> OutNeighbours(gr1);
[ [ 2, 2 ], [ 1, 1 ] ]

3.3-10 DigraphReflexiveTransitiveClosure
‣ DigraphReflexiveTransitiveClosure( digraph )( attribute )
‣ DigraphTransitiveClosure( digraph )( attribute )

Returns: A digraph.

If digraph is a digraph with no multiple edges, then these attributes return the (reflexive) transitive closure of digraph.

A digraph is reflexive if it has a loop at every vertex, and it is transitive if whenever [i,j] and [j,k] are edges of digraph, [i,k] is also an edge. The (reflexive) transitive closure of a digraph digraph is the least (reflexive and) transitive digraph containing digraph.

Let n be the number of vertices of digraph, and let m be the number of edges. For an arbitrary digraph, these attributes will use a version of the Floyd-Warshall algorithm, with complexity O(n^3). However, for a topologically sortable digraph [see DigraphTopologicalSort (5.1-7)], these attributes will use methods with complexity O(m + n + m ⋅ n) when this is faster.

gap> gr := DigraphFromDiSparse6String(".H`eOWR`Ul^");
<digraph with 9 vertices, 8 edges>
gap> IsReflexiveDigraph(gr) or IsTransitiveDigraph(gr);
false
gap> OutNeighbours(gr);
[ [ 4, 6 ], [ 1, 3 ], [  ], [ 5 ], [  ], [ 7, 8, 9 ], [  ], [  ], 
  [  ] ]
gap> trans := DigraphTransitiveClosure(gr);
<digraph with 9 vertices, 18 edges>
gap> OutNeighbours(trans);
[ [ 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 ], [ 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 ], [  ], [ 5 ], 
  [  ], [ 7, 8, 9 ], [  ], [  ], [  ] ]
gap> reflextrans := DigraphReflexiveTransitiveClosure(gr);
<digraph with 9 vertices, 27 edges>
gap> OutNeighbours(reflextrans);
[ [ 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 ], [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 ], [ 3 ], 
  [ 4, 5 ], [ 5 ], [ 6, 7, 8, 9 ], [ 7 ], [ 8 ], [ 9 ] ]

3.3-11 DigraphReflexiveTransitiveReduction
‣ DigraphReflexiveTransitiveReduction( digraph )( operation )
‣ DigraphTransitiveReduction( digraph )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

If digraph is a topologically sortable digraph [see DigraphTopologicalSort (5.1-7)] with no multiple edges, then these operations return the (reflexive) transitive reduction of digraph.

The (reflexive) transitive reduction of such a digraph is the unique least subgraph such that the (reflexive) transitive closure of the subgraph is equal to the (reflexive) transitive closure of digraph [see DigraphReflexiveTransitiveClosure (3.3-10)]. In order words, it is the least subgraph of digraph which retains the same reachability as digraph.

Let n be the number of vertices of an arbitrary digraph, and let m be the number of edges. Then these operations use methods with complexity O(m + n + m ⋅ n).

gap> gr := Digraph([[1, 2, 3], [3], [3]]);;
gap> DigraphHasLoops(gr);
true
gap> gr1 := DigraphReflexiveTransitiveReduction(gr);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 2 edges>
gap> DigraphHasLoops(gr1);
false
gap> OutNeighbours(gr1);
[ [ 2 ], [ 3 ], [  ] ]
gap> gr2 := DigraphTransitiveReduction(gr);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 4 edges>
gap> DigraphHasLoops(gr2);
true
gap> OutNeighbours(gr2);
[ [ 2, 1 ], [ 3 ], [ 3 ] ]
gap> DigraphReflexiveTransitiveClosure(gr)
>  = DigraphReflexiveTransitiveClosure(gr1);
true
gap> DigraphTransitiveClosure(gr)
>  = DigraphTransitiveClosure(gr2);
true

3.3-12 DigraphAddVertex
‣ DigraphAddVertex( digraph[, label] )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

The operation returns a new digraph constructed from digraph by adding a single new vertex.

If the optional second argument label is a GAP object, then the new vertex will be labelled label.

gap> gr := CompleteDigraph(3);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 6 edges>
gap> new := DigraphAddVertex(gr);
<digraph with 4 vertices, 6 edges>
gap> DigraphVertices(new);
[ 1 .. 4 ]
gap> new := DigraphAddVertex(gr, Group([(1, 2)]));
<digraph with 4 vertices, 6 edges>
gap> DigraphVertexLabels(new);
[ 1, 2, 3, Group([ (1,2) ]) ]

3.3-13 DigraphAddVertices
‣ DigraphAddVertices( digraph, m[, labels] )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

For a non-negative integer m, this operation returns a new digraph constructed from digraph by adding m new vertices.

If the optional third argument labels is a list of length m consisting of GAP objects, then the new vertices will be labelled according to this list.

gap> gr := CompleteDigraph(3);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 6 edges>
gap> new := DigraphAddVertices(gr, 3);
<digraph with 6 vertices, 6 edges>
gap> DigraphVertices(new);
[ 1 .. 6 ]
gap> new := DigraphAddVertices(gr, 2, [Group([(1, 2)]), "d"]);
<digraph with 5 vertices, 6 edges>
gap> DigraphVertexLabels(new);
[ 1, 2, 3, Group([ (1,2) ]), "d" ]
gap> DigraphAddVertices(gr, 0) = gr;
true

3.3-14 DigraphAddEdge
‣ DigraphAddEdge( digraph, edge )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

If edge is a pairs of vertices of digraph, then this operation returns a new digraph constructed from digraph by adding a new edge with source edge[1] and range edge[2].

gap> gr1 := Digraph([[2], [3], []]);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 2 edges>
gap> DigraphEdges(gr1);
[ [ 1, 2 ], [ 2, 3 ] ]
gap> gr2 := DigraphAddEdge(gr1, [3, 1]);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 3 edges>
gap> DigraphEdges(gr2);
[ [ 1, 2 ], [ 2, 3 ], [ 3, 1 ] ]
gap> gr3 := DigraphAddEdge(gr2, [2, 3]);
<multidigraph with 3 vertices, 4 edges>
gap> DigraphEdges(gr3);
[ [ 1, 2 ], [ 2, 3 ], [ 2, 3 ], [ 3, 1 ] ]

3.3-15 DigraphAddEdgeOrbit
‣ DigraphAddEdgeOrbit( digraph, edge )( operation )

Returns: A new digraph.

This operation returns a new digraph with the same vertices and edges as digraph and with additional edges consisting of the orbit of the edge edge under the action of the DigraphGroup (7.2-5) of digraph. If edge is already an edge in digraph, then digraph is returns unchanged.

An edge is simply a pair of vertices of digraph.

gap> gr1 := CayleyDigraph(DihedralGroup(8));
<digraph with 8 vertices, 24 edges>
gap> gr2 := DigraphAddEdgeOrbit(gr1, [1, 8]);
<digraph with 8 vertices, 32 edges>
gap> DigraphEdges(gr1);
[ [ 1, 2 ], [ 1, 3 ], [ 1, 4 ], [ 2, 1 ], [ 2, 8 ], [ 2, 6 ], 
  [ 3, 5 ], [ 3, 4 ], [ 3, 7 ], [ 4, 6 ], [ 4, 7 ], [ 4, 1 ], 
  [ 5, 3 ], [ 5, 2 ], [ 5, 8 ], [ 6, 4 ], [ 6, 5 ], [ 6, 2 ], 
  [ 7, 8 ], [ 7, 1 ], [ 7, 3 ], [ 8, 7 ], [ 8, 6 ], [ 8, 5 ] ]
gap> DigraphEdges(gr2);
[ [ 1, 2 ], [ 1, 3 ], [ 1, 4 ], [ 1, 8 ], [ 2, 1 ], [ 2, 8 ], 
  [ 2, 6 ], [ 2, 3 ], [ 3, 5 ], [ 3, 4 ], [ 3, 7 ], [ 3, 2 ], 
  [ 4, 6 ], [ 4, 7 ], [ 4, 1 ], [ 4, 5 ], [ 5, 3 ], [ 5, 2 ], 
  [ 5, 8 ], [ 5, 4 ], [ 6, 4 ], [ 6, 5 ], [ 6, 2 ], [ 6, 7 ], 
  [ 7, 8 ], [ 7, 1 ], [ 7, 3 ], [ 7, 6 ], [ 8, 7 ], [ 8, 6 ], 
  [ 8, 5 ], [ 8, 1 ] ]
gap> gr3 := DigraphRemoveEdgeOrbit(gr2, [1, 8]);
<digraph with 8 vertices, 24 edges>
gap> gr3 = gr1;
true

3.3-16 DigraphAddEdges
‣ DigraphAddEdges( digraph, edges )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

If edges is a (possibly empty) list of pairs of vertices of digraph, then this operation returns a new digraph constructed from digraph by adding the edges specified by edges. More precisely, for every edge in edges, a new edge will be added with source edge[1] and range edges[2].

If an edge is included in edges with multiplicity k, then it will be added k times.

gap> func := function(n)
>  local source, range, i;
>  source := [];
>  range  := [];
>  for i in [1 .. n - 2] do
>    Add(source, i);
>    Add(range, i + 1);
>  od;
>  return Digraph(n, source, range);
> end;;
gap> gr := func(1024);
<digraph with 1024 vertices, 1022 edges>
gap> gr := DigraphAddEdges(gr,
> [[1023, 1024], [1, 1024], [1023, 1024], [1024, 1]]);
<multidigraph with 1024 vertices, 1026 edges>

3.3-17 DigraphRemoveVertex
‣ DigraphRemoveVertex( digraph, v )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

If v is a vertex of digraph, then this operation returns a new digraph constructed from digraph by removing vertex v, along with any edge whose source or range vertex is v.

If digraph has n vertices, then the vertices of the new digraph are [1..n-1], but the original labels can be accessed via DigraphVertexLabels (5.1-9).

gap> gr := Digraph(["a", "b", "c"],
>                  ["a", "a", "b", "c", "c"],
>                  ["b", "c", "a", "a", "c"]);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 5 edges>
gap> DigraphVertexLabels(gr);
[ "a", "b", "c" ]
gap> DigraphEdges(gr);
[ [ 1, 2 ], [ 1, 3 ], [ 2, 1 ], [ 3, 1 ], [ 3, 3 ] ]
gap> new := DigraphRemoveVertex(gr, 2);
<digraph with 2 vertices, 3 edges>
gap> DigraphVertexLabels(new);
[ "a", "c" ]

3.3-18 DigraphRemoveVertices
‣ DigraphRemoveVertices ( digraph, verts )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

If verts is a (possibly empty) duplicate-free list of vertices of digraph, then this operation returns a new digraph constructed from digraph by removing every vertex in verts, along with any edge whose source or range vertex is in verts.

If digraph has n vertices, then the vertices of the new digraph are [1 .. n-Length(verts)], but the original labels can be accessed via DigraphVertexLabels (5.1-9).

gap> gr := Digraph([[3], [1, 3, 5], [1], [1, 2, 4], [2, 3, 5]]);
<digraph with 5 vertices, 11 edges>
gap> SetDigraphVertexLabels(gr, ["a", "b", "c", "d", "e"]);
gap> new := DigraphRemoveVertices(gr, [2, 4]);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 4 edges>
gap> DigraphVertexLabels(new);
[ "a", "c", "e" ]

3.3-19 DigraphRemoveEdge
‣ DigraphRemoveEdge( digraph, edge )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

If one of the following holds:

then this operation returns a new digraph constructed from digraph by removing the edges specified by edges. If, in the first case, the pair of vertices edge does not specify an edge of digraph, then a new copy of digraph will be returned.

gap> gr := CycleDigraph(250000);
<digraph with 250000 vertices, 250000 edges>
gap> gr := DigraphRemoveEdge(gr, [250000, 1]);
<digraph with 250000 vertices, 249999 edges>
gap> gr := DigraphRemoveEdge(gr, 10);
<digraph with 250000 vertices, 249998 edges>

3.3-20 DigraphRemoveEdgeOrbit
‣ DigraphRemoveEdgeOrbit( digraph, edge )( operation )

Returns: A new digraph.

This operation returns a new digraph with the same vertices as digraph and with the orbit of the edge edge (under the action of the DigraphGroup (7.2-5) of digraph) removed. If edge is not an edge in digraph, then digraph is returned unchanged.

An edge is simply a pair of vertices of digraph.

gap> gr1 := CayleyDigraph(DihedralGroup(8));
<digraph with 8 vertices, 24 edges>
gap> gr2 := DigraphAddEdgeOrbit(gr1, [1, 8]);
<digraph with 8 vertices, 32 edges>
gap> DigraphEdges(gr1);
[ [ 1, 2 ], [ 1, 3 ], [ 1, 4 ], [ 2, 1 ], [ 2, 8 ], [ 2, 6 ], 
  [ 3, 5 ], [ 3, 4 ], [ 3, 7 ], [ 4, 6 ], [ 4, 7 ], [ 4, 1 ], 
  [ 5, 3 ], [ 5, 2 ], [ 5, 8 ], [ 6, 4 ], [ 6, 5 ], [ 6, 2 ], 
  [ 7, 8 ], [ 7, 1 ], [ 7, 3 ], [ 8, 7 ], [ 8, 6 ], [ 8, 5 ] ]
gap> DigraphEdges(gr2);
[ [ 1, 2 ], [ 1, 3 ], [ 1, 4 ], [ 1, 8 ], [ 2, 1 ], [ 2, 8 ], 
  [ 2, 6 ], [ 2, 3 ], [ 3, 5 ], [ 3, 4 ], [ 3, 7 ], [ 3, 2 ], 
  [ 4, 6 ], [ 4, 7 ], [ 4, 1 ], [ 4, 5 ], [ 5, 3 ], [ 5, 2 ], 
  [ 5, 8 ], [ 5, 4 ], [ 6, 4 ], [ 6, 5 ], [ 6, 2 ], [ 6, 7 ], 
  [ 7, 8 ], [ 7, 1 ], [ 7, 3 ], [ 7, 6 ], [ 8, 7 ], [ 8, 6 ], 
  [ 8, 5 ], [ 8, 1 ] ]
gap> gr3 := DigraphRemoveEdgeOrbit(gr2, [1, 8]);
<digraph with 8 vertices, 24 edges>
gap> gr3 = gr1;
true

3.3-21 DigraphRemoveEdges
‣ DigraphRemoveEdges( digraph, edges )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

If one of the following holds:

then this operation returns a new digraph constructed from digraph by removing all of the edges specified by edges [see DigraphRemoveEdge (3.3-19)].

gap> gr := CycleDigraph(250000);
<digraph with 250000 vertices, 250000 edges>
gap> gr := DigraphRemoveEdges(gr, [[250000, 1]]);
<digraph with 250000 vertices, 249999 edges>
gap> gr := DigraphRemoveEdges(gr, [10]);
<digraph with 250000 vertices, 249998 edges>

3.3-22 DigraphRemoveLoops
‣ DigraphRemoveLoops( digraph )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

If digraph is a digraph, then this operation returns a new digraph constructed from digraph by removing every loop. A loop is an edge with equal source and range.

gap> gr := Digraph([[1, 2, 4], [1, 4], [3, 4], [1, 4, 5], [1, 5]]);
<digraph with 5 vertices, 12 edges>
gap> DigraphRemoveLoops(gr);
<digraph with 5 vertices, 8 edges>

3.3-23 DigraphRemoveAllMultipleEdges
‣ DigraphRemoveAllMultipleEdges( digraph )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

If digraph is a digraph, then this operation returns a new digraph constructed from digraph by removing all multiple edges. The result is the largest subdigraph of digraph which does not contain multiple edges.

gap> gr1 := Digraph([[1, 2, 3, 2], [1, 1, 3], [2, 2, 2]]);
<multidigraph with 3 vertices, 10 edges>
gap> gr2 := DigraphRemoveAllMultipleEdges(gr1);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 6 edges>
gap> OutNeighbours(gr2);
[ [ 1, 2, 3 ], [ 1, 3 ], [ 2 ] ]

3.3-24 DigraphReverseEdges
‣ DigraphReverseEdges( digraph, edges )( operation )
‣ DigraphReverseEdge( digraph, edge )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

If digraph is a digraph without multiple edges, and edges is either:

then DigraphReverseEdges returns a new digraph constructed from digraph by reversing the orientation of every edge specified by edges. If only one edge is to be reversed, then DigraphReverseEdge can be used instead. In this case, the second argument should just be a single vertex-pair or a single position.

Note that even though digraph cannot have multiple edges, the output may have multiple edges.

gap> gr := DigraphFromDiSparse6String(".Tg?i@s?t_e?_qEsC");
<digraph with 21 vertices, 8 edges>
gap> DigraphEdges(gr);
[ [ 1, 2 ], [ 1, 7 ], [ 1, 8 ], [ 5, 21 ], [ 7, 19 ], [ 9, 1 ], 
  [ 11, 2 ], [ 21, 1 ] ]
gap> gr2 := DigraphReverseEdges(gr, [1, 2, 4]);
<digraph with 21 vertices, 8 edges>
gap> gr = DigraphReverseEdges(gr2, [[7, 1], [2, 1], [21, 5]]);
true
gap> gr2 := DigraphReverseEdge(gr, 5);
<digraph with 21 vertices, 8 edges>
gap> gr2 = DigraphReverseEdge(gr, [7, 19]);
true

3.3-25 DigraphDisjointUnion
‣ DigraphDisjointUnion( gr1, gr2, ... )( function )
‣ DigraphDisjointUnion( list )( function )

Returns: A digraph.

In the first form, if gr1, gr2, etc. are digraphs, then DigraphDisjointUnion returns their disjoint union. In the second form, if list is a non-empty list of digraphs, then DigraphDisjointUnion returns the disjoint union of the digraphs contained in the list.

For a disjoint union of digraphs, the vertex set is the disjoint union of the vertex sets, and the edge list is the disjoint union of the edge lists.

More specifically, for a collection of digraphs gr1, gr2, ..., the disjoint union with have DigraphNrVertices(gr1) + DigraphNrVertices(gr2) + ... vertices. The edges of gr1 will remain unchanged, whilst the edges of the ith digraph, gr[i], will be changed so that they belong to the vertices of the disjoint union corresponding to gr[i]. In particular, the edges of gr[i] will have their source and range increased by DigraphNrVertices(gr1) + ... + DigraphNrVertices(gr[i-1]).

Note that previously set DigraphVertexLabels (5.1-9) will be lost.

gap> gr1 := CycleDigraph(3);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 3 edges>
gap> OutNeighbours(gr1);
[ [ 2 ], [ 3 ], [ 1 ] ]
gap> gr2 := CompleteDigraph(3);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 6 edges>
gap> OutNeighbours(gr2);
[ [ 2, 3 ], [ 1, 3 ], [ 1, 2 ] ]
gap> union := DigraphDisjointUnion(gr1, gr2);
<digraph with 6 vertices, 9 edges>
gap> OutNeighbours(union);
[ [ 2 ], [ 3 ], [ 1 ], [ 5, 6 ], [ 4, 6 ], [ 4, 5 ] ]

3.3-26 DigraphEdgeUnion
‣ DigraphEdgeUnion( gr1, gr2, ... )( function )
‣ DigraphEdgeUnion( list )( function )

Returns: A digraph.

In the first form, if gr1, gr2, etc. are digraphs, then DigraphEdgeUnion returns their edge union. In the second form, if list is a non-empty list of digraphs, then DigraphEdgeUnion returns the edge union of the digraphs contained in the list.

The vertex set of the edge union of a collection of digraphs is the union of the vertex sets, whilst the edge list of the edge union is the concatenation of the edge lists. The number of vertices of the edge union is equal to the maximum number of vertices of one of the digraphs, whilst the number of edges of the edge union will equal the sum of the number of edges of each digraph.

Note that previously set DigraphVertexLabels (5.1-9) will be lost.

gap> gr := CycleDigraph(10);
<digraph with 10 vertices, 10 edges>
gap> DigraphEdgeUnion(gr, gr);
<multidigraph with 10 vertices, 20 edges>
gap> gr1 := Digraph([[2], [1]]);
<digraph with 2 vertices, 2 edges>
gap> gr2 := Digraph([[2, 3], [2], [1]]);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 4 edges>
gap> union := DigraphEdgeUnion(gr1, gr2);
<multidigraph with 3 vertices, 6 edges>
gap> OutNeighbours(union);
[ [ 2, 2, 3 ], [ 1, 2 ], [ 1 ] ]
gap> union = DigraphByEdges(
> Concatenation(DigraphEdges(gr1), DigraphEdges(gr2)));
true

3.3-27 DigraphJoin
‣ DigraphJoin( gr1, gr2, ... )( function )
‣ DigraphJoin( list )( function )

Returns: A digraph.

In the first form, if gr1, gr2, etc. are digraphs, then DigraphJoin returns their join. In the second form, if list is a non-empty list of digraphs, then DigraphJoin returns the join of the digraphs contained in the list.

The join of a collection of digraphs gr1, gr2, ... is formed by first taking the DigraphDisjointUnion (3.3-25) of the collection. In the disjoint union, if i ≠ j then there are no edges between vertices corresponding to digraphs gr[i] and gr[j] in the collection; the join is created by including all such edges.

For example, the join of two empty digraphs is a complete bipartite digraph.

Note that previously set DigraphVertexLabels (5.1-9) will be lost.

gap> gr := CompleteDigraph(3);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 6 edges>
gap> IsCompleteDigraph(DigraphJoin(gr, gr));
true
gap> gr2 := CycleDigraph(3);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 3 edges>
gap> DigraphJoin(gr, gr2);
<digraph with 6 vertices, 27 edges>

3.3-28 LineDigraph
‣ LineDigraph( digraph )( operation )
‣ EdgeDigraph( digraph )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

Given a digraph digraph, the operation returns the digraph obtained by associating a vertex with each edge of digraph, and creating an edge from a vertex v to a vertex u if and only if the terminal vertex of the edge associated with v is the start vertex of the edge associated with u.

gap> LineDigraph(CompleteDigraph(3));
<digraph with 6 vertices, 12 edges>
gap> LineDigraph(ChainDigraph(3));
<digraph with 2 vertices, 1 edge>

3.3-29 LineUndirectedDigraph
‣ LineUndirectedDigraph( digraph )( operation )
‣ EdgeUndirectedDigraph( digraph )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

Given a symmetric digraph digraph, the operation returns the symmetric digraph obtained by associating a vertex with each edge of digraph, ignoring directions and multiplicites, and adding an edge between two vertices if and only if the corresponding edges have a vertex in common.

gap> LineUndirectedDigraph(CompleteDigraph(3));
<digraph with 3 vertices, 6 edges>
gap> LineUndirectedDigraph(DigraphSymmetricClosure(ChainDigraph(3)));
<digraph with 2 vertices, 2 edges>

3.3-30 DoubleDigraph
‣ DoubleDigraph( digraph )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

Let digraph be a digraph with vertex set V. This function returns the double digraph of digraph. The vertex set of the double digraph is the orginal vertex set together with a duplicate. The edges are [u_1, v_2] and [u_2, v_1] if and only if [u, v] is an edge in digraph, together with the original edges and their duplicates.

gap> gamma := Digraph([[2], [3], [1]]);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 3 edges>
gap> DoubleDigraph(gamma);
<digraph with 6 vertices, 12 edges>

3.3-31 BipartiteDoubleDigraph
‣ BipartiteDoubleDigraph( digraph )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

Let digraph be a digraph with vertex set V. This function returns the bipartite double digraph of digraph. The vertex set of the double digraph is the orginal vertex set together with a duplicate. The edges are [u_1, v_2] and [u_2, v_1] if and only if [u, v] is an edge in digraph. The resulting graph is bipartite, since the orignal edges are not included in the resulting digraph.

gap> gamma := Digraph([[2], [3], [1]]);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 3 edges>
gap> BipartiteDoubleDigraph(gamma);
<digraph with 6 vertices, 6 edges>

3.3-32 DigraphAddAllLoops
‣ DigraphAddAllLoops( digraph )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

For a digraph digraph this operation return a copy of digraph such that a loop is added for every vertex which did not have a loop in digraph.

gap> gr := EmptyDigraph(13);
<digraph with 13 vertices, 0 edges>
gap> gr := DigraphAddAllLoops(gr);
<digraph with 13 vertices, 13 edges>
gap> OutNeighbours(gr);
[ [ 1 ], [ 2 ], [ 3 ], [ 4 ], [ 5 ], [ 6 ], [ 7 ], [ 8 ], [ 9 ], 
  [ 10 ], [ 11 ], [ 12 ], [ 13 ] ]
gap> gr := Digraph([[1, 2, 3], [1, 3], [1]]);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 6 edges>
gap> gr := DigraphAddAllLoops(gr);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 8 edges>
gap> OutNeighbours(gr);
[ [ 1, 2, 3 ], [ 1, 3, 2 ], [ 1, 3 ] ]

3.3-33 DistanceDigraph
‣ DistanceDigraph( digraph, i )( operation )
‣ DistanceDigraph( digraph, list )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

The first argument is a digraph, the second argument is a non-negative integer or a list of positive integers. This operation returns a digraph on the same set of vertices as digraph, with two vertices being adjacent if and only if the distance between them in digraph equals i or is a number in list. See DigraphShortestDistance (5.3-2).

gap> digraph := DigraphFromSparse6String(
> ":]n?AL`BC_DEbEF`GIaGHdIJeGKcKL_@McDHfILaBJfHMjKM");
<digraph with 30 vertices, 90 edges>
gap> DistanceDigraph(digraph, 1);
<digraph with 30 vertices, 90 edges>
gap> DistanceDigraph(digraph, [1, 2]);
<digraph with 30 vertices, 270 edges>

3.3-34 DigraphClosure
‣ DigraphClosure( digraph, k )( operation )

Returns: A digraph

Given a symmetric loopless digraph with no multiple edges digraph, the k-closure of digraph is defined to be the unique smallest symmetric loopless digraph C with no multiple edges on the vertices of digraph that contains all the edges of digraph and satsifies the property that the sum of the degrees of every two non-adjacenct vertices in C is less than k. See IsSymmetricDigraph (6.1-10), DigraphHasLoops (6.1-1), IsMultiDigraph (6.1-8), and OutDegreeOfVertex (5.2-9).

The operation DigraphClosure returns the k-closure of digraph.

gap> gr := CompleteDigraph(6);;
gap> DigraphRemoveEdges(gr, [[1, 2], [2, 1]]);;
gap> closure := DigraphClosure(gr, 6);
<digraph with 6 vertices, 30 edges>
gap> IsCompleteDigraph(closure);
true

3.4 Random digraphs

3.4-1 RandomDigraph
‣ RandomDigraph( n[, p] )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

If n is a positive integer, then this function returns a random digraph with n vertices and without multiple edges. The result may or may not have loops.

If the optional second argument p is a float with value 0 ≤ p ≤ 1, then an edge will exist between each pair of vertices with probability approximately p. If p is not specified, then a random probability will be assumed (chosen with uniform probability).

gap> RandomDigraph(1000);
<digraph with 1000 vertices, 364444 edges>
gap> RandomDigraph(10000, 0.023);
<digraph with 10000 vertices, 2300438 edges>

3.4-2 RandomMultiDigraph
‣ RandomMultiDigraph( n[, m] )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

If n is a positive integer, then this function returns a random digraph with n vertices. If the optional second argument m is a positive integer, then the digraph will have m edges. If m is not specified, then the number of edges will be chosen randomly (with uniform probability) from the range [1 .. n choose 2].

The method used by this function chooses each edge from the set of all possible edges with uniform probability. No effort is made to avoid creating multiple edges, so it is possible (but not guaranteed) that the result will have multiple edges. The result may or may not have loops.

gap> RandomMultiDigraph(1000);
<multidigraph with 1000 vertices, 216659 edges>
gap> RandomMultiDigraph(1000, 950);
<multidigraph with 1000 vertices, 950 edges>

3.4-3 RandomTournament
‣ RandomTournament( n )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

If n is a non-negative integer, this function returns a random tournament with n vertices. See IsTournament (6.1-11).

gap> RandomTournament(10);
<digraph with 10 vertices, 45 edges>

3.5 Standard examples

3.5-1 ChainDigraph
‣ ChainDigraph( n )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

If n is a positive integer, this function returns a chain with n vertices and n - 1 edges. Specifically, for each vertex i (with i < n), there is a directed edge with source i and range i + 1.

The DigraphReflexiveTransitiveClosure (3.3-10) of a chain represents a total order.

gap> ChainDigraph(42);
<digraph with 42 vertices, 41 edges>

3.5-2 CompleteDigraph
‣ CompleteDigraph( n )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

If n is a non-negative integer, this function returns the complete digraph with n vertices. See IsCompleteDigraph (6.1-5).

gap> CompleteDigraph(20);
<digraph with 20 vertices, 380 edges>

3.5-3 CompleteBipartiteDigraph
‣ CompleteBipartiteDigraph( m, n )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

A complete bipartite digraph is a digraph whose vertices can be partitioned into two non-empty vertex sets, such there exists a unique edge with source i and range j if and only if i and j lie in different vertex sets.

If m and n are positive integers, this function returns the complete bipartite digraph with vertex sets of sizes m (containing the vertices [1 .. m]) and n (containing the vertices [m + 1 .. m + n]).

gap> CompleteBipartiteDigraph(2, 3);
<digraph with 5 vertices, 12 edges>

3.5-4 CompleteMultipartiteDigraph
‣ CompleteMultipartiteDigraph( orders )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

For a list orders of n positive integers, this function returns the digraph containing n independent sets of vertices of orders [l[1] .. l[n]]. Moreover, each vertex is adjacent to every other not contained in the same independent set.

gap> CompleteMultipartiteDigraph([5, 4, 2]);
<digraph with 11 vertices, 76 edges>

3.5-5 CycleDigraph
‣ CycleDigraph( n )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

If n is a positive integer, this function returns a cycle digraph with n vertices and n edges. Specifically, for each vertex i (with i < n), there is a directed edge with source i and range i + 1. In addition, there is an edge with source n and range 1.

gap> CycleDigraph(1);
<digraph with 1 vertex, 1 edge>
gap> CycleDigraph(123);
<digraph with 123 vertices, 123 edges>

3.5-6 EmptyDigraph
‣ EmptyDigraph( n )( operation )
‣ NullDigraph( n )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

If n is a non-negative integer, this function returns the empty or null digraph with n vertices. An empty digraph is one with no edges.

NullDigraph is a synonym for EmptyDigraph.

gap> EmptyDigraph(20);
<digraph with 20 vertices, 0 edges>
gap> NullDigraph(10);
<digraph with 10 vertices, 0 edges>

3.5-7 JohnsonDigraph
‣ JohnsonDigraph( n, k )( operation )

Returns: A digraph.

If n and k are non-negative integers, then this operation returns a symmetric digraph which corresponds to the undirected Johnson graph J(n, k).

The Johnson graph J(n, k) has vertices given by all the k-subsets of the range [1 .. k], and two vertices are connected by an edge iff their intersection has size k - 1.

gap> gr := JohnsonDigraph(3, 1);
<digraph with 3 vertices, 6 edges>
gap> OutNeighbours(gr);
[ [ 2, 3 ], [ 1, 3 ], [ 1, 2 ] ]
gap> gr := JohnsonDigraph(4, 2);
<digraph with 6 vertices, 24 edges>
gap> OutNeighbours(gr);
[ [ 2, 3, 4, 5 ], [ 1, 3, 4, 6 ], [ 1, 2, 5, 6 ], [ 1, 2, 5, 6 ], 
  [ 1, 3, 4, 6 ], [ 2, 3, 4, 5 ] ]
gap> JohnsonDigraph(1, 0);
<digraph with 1 vertex, 0 edges>
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