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11 Algebraic Varieties
 11.1 Algebraic Varieties
 11.2 Projective Varieties
 11.3 Quadrics and Hermitian varieties
 11.4 Affine Varieties
 11.5 Geometry maps
 11.6 Segre Varieties
 11.7 Veronese Varieties
 11.8 Grassmann Varieties

11 Algebraic Varieties

In FinInG we provide some basic functionality for algebraic varieties defined over finite fields. The algebraic varieties in FinInG are defined by a list of multivariate polynomials over a finite field, and an ambient geometry. This ambient geometry is either a projective space, and then the algebraic variety is called a projective variety, or an affine geometry, and then the algebraic variety is called an affine variety. In this chapter we give a brief overview of the features of FinInG concerning these two types of algebraic varieties. The package FinInG also contains the Veronese varieties VeroneseVariety (11.7-1), the Segre varieties SegreVariety (11.6-1) and the Grassmann varieties GrassmannVariety (11.8-1); three classical projective varieties. These varieties have an associated geometry map (the VeroneseMap (11.7-3), SegreMap (11.6-3) and GrassmannMap (11.8-3)) and FinInG also provides some general functionality for these.

11.1 Algebraic Varieties

An algebraic variety in FinInG is an algebraic variety in a projective space or affine space, defined by a list of polynomials over a finite field.

11.1-1 AlgebraicVariety
‣ AlgebraicVariety( space, pring, pollist )( operation )
‣ AlgebraicVariety( space, pollist )( operation )

Returns: an algebraic variety

The argument space is an affine or projective space over a finite field F, the argument pring is a multivariate polynomial ring defined over (a subfield of) F, and pollist is a list of polynomials in pring. If the space is a projective space, then pollist needs to be a list of homogeneous polynomials. In FinInG there are two types of projective varieties: projective varieties and affine varieties. The following operations apply to both types.

gap> F:=GF(9);
GF(3^2)
gap> r:=PolynomialRing(F,4);
GF(3^2)[x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4]
gap> pg:=PG(3,9);
ProjectiveSpace(3, 9)
gap> f1:=r.1*r.3-r.2^2;
x_1*x_3-x_2^2
gap> f2:=r.4*r.1^2-r.4^3;
x_1^2*x_4-x_4^3
gap> var:=AlgebraicVariety(pg,[f1,f2]);
Projective Variety in ProjectiveSpace(3, 9)
gap> DefiningListOfPolynomials(var);
[ x_1*x_3-x_2^2, x_1^2*x_4-x_4^3 ]
gap> AmbientSpace(var);
ProjectiveSpace(3, 9)
 

11.1-2 DefiningListOfPolynomials
‣ DefiningListOfPolynomials( var )( attribute )

Returns: a list of polynomials

The argument var is an algebraic variety. This attribute returns the list of polynomials that was used to define the variety var.

11.1-3 AmbientSpace
‣ AmbientSpace( var )( attribute )

Returns: an affine or projective space

The argument var is an algebraic variety. This attribute returns the affine or projective space in which the variety var was defined.

11.1-4 PointsOfAlgebraicVariety
‣ PointsOfAlgebraicVariety( var )( operation )
‣ Points( var )( operation )

Returns: a list of points

The argument var is an algebraic variety. This operation returns the list of points of the AmbientSpace (11.1-3) of the algebraic variety var whose coordinates satify the DefiningListOfPolynomials (11.1-2) of the algebraic variety var.

gap> F:=GF(9);
GF(3^2)
gap> r:=PolynomialRing(F,4);
GF(3^2)[x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4]
gap> pg:=PG(3,9);
ProjectiveSpace(3, 9)
gap> f1:=r.1*r.3-r.2^2;
x_1*x_3-x_2^2
gap> f2:=r.4*r.1^2-r.4^3;
x_1^2*x_4-x_4^3
gap> var:=AlgebraicVariety(pg,[f1,f2]);
Projective Variety in ProjectiveSpace(3, 9)
gap> points:=Points(var);
<points of Projective Variety in ProjectiveSpace(3, 9)>
gap> Size(points);
28
gap> iter := Iterator(points);
<iterator>
gap> for i in [1..4] do
> 	x := NextIterator(iter);
> 	Display(x);
> od;
[1...]
[1..1]
[1..2]
[111.]
 

11.1-5 Iterator
‣ Iterator( pts )( operation )

Returns: an iterator

The argument pts is the set of PointsOfAlgebraicVariety (11.1-4) of an algebraic variety var. This operation returns an iterator for the points of an algebraic variety.

11.1-6 \in
‣ \in( x, var )( operation )
‣ \in( x, pts )( operation )

Returns: true or false

The argument x is a point of the AmbientSpace (11.1-3) of an algebraic variety AlgebraicVariety (11.1-1). This operation also works for a point x and the collection pts returned by PointsOfAlgebraicVariety (11.1-4).

11.2 Projective Varieties

A projective variety in FinInG is an algebraic variety in a projective space defined by a list of homogeneous polynomials over a finite field.

11.2-1 ProjectiveVariety
‣ ProjectiveVariety( pg, pring, pollist )( operation )
‣ ProjectiveVariety( pg, pollist )( operation )
‣ AlgebraicVariety( pg, pring, pollist )( operation )
‣ AlgebraicVariety( pg, pollist )( operation )

Returns: a projective algebraic variety

gap> F:=GF(9);
GF(3^2)
gap> r:=PolynomialRing(F,4);
GF(3^2)[x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4]
gap> pg:=PG(3,9);
ProjectiveSpace(3, 9)
gap> f1:=r.1*r.3-r.2^2;
x_1*x_3-x_2^2
gap> f2:=r.4*r.1^2-r.4^3;
x_1^2*x_4-x_4^3
gap> var:=AlgebraicVariety(pg,[f1,f2]);
Projective Variety in ProjectiveSpace(3, 9)
gap> DefiningListOfPolynomials(var);
[ x_1*x_3-x_2^2, x_1^2*x_4-x_4^3 ]
gap> AmbientSpace(var);
ProjectiveSpace(3, 9)
 
        

11.3 Quadrics and Hermitian varieties

Quadrics (QuadraticVariety (11.3-2)) and Hermitian varieties (HermitianVariety (11.3-1)) are projective varieties that have the associated quadratic or hermitian form as an extra attribute installed. Furthermore, we provide a method for PolarSpace taking as an argument a projective algebraic variety.

11.3-1 HermitianVariety
‣ HermitianVariety( pg, pring, pol )( operation )
‣ HermitianVariety( pg, pol )( operation )
‣ HermitianVariety( n, F )( operation )
‣ HermitianVariety( n, q )( operation )

Returns: a hermitian variety in a projective space

For the first two methods, the argument pg is a projective space, pring is a polynomial ring, and pol is polynomial. For the third and fourth variations, the argument n is an integer, the argument F is a finite field, and the argument q is a prime power. These variations of the operation return the hermitian variety associated to the standard hermitian form in the projective space of dimension n over the field F of order q.

gap> F:=GF(25);
GF(5^2)
gap> r:=PolynomialRing(F,3);
GF(5^2)[x_1,x_2,x_3]
gap> x:=IndeterminatesOfPolynomialRing(r);
[ x_1, x_2, x_3 ]
gap> pg:=PG(2,F);
ProjectiveSpace(2, 25)
gap> f:=x[1]^6+x[2]^6+x[3]^6;
x_1^6+x_2^6+x_3^6
gap> hv:=HermitianVariety(pg,f);
Hermitian Variety in ProjectiveSpace(2, 25)
gap> AsSet(List(Lines(pg),l->Size(Filtered(Points(l),x->x in hv))));
[ 1, 6 ]
gap> hv:=HermitianVariety(5,4);
Hermitian Variety in ProjectiveSpace(5, 4)
gap> hps:=PolarSpace(hv);
<polar space in ProjectiveSpace(
5,GF(2^2)): x_1^3+x_2^3+x_3^3+x_4^3+x_5^3+x_6^3=0 >
gap> hf:=SesquilinearForm(hv);
< hermitian form >
gap> PolynomialOfForm(hf);
x_1^3+x_2^3+x_3^3+x_4^3+x_5^3+x_6^3
 

11.3-2 QuadraticVariety
‣ QuadraticVariety( pg, pring, pol )( operation )
‣ QuadraticVariety( pg, pol )( operation )
‣ QuadraticVariety( n, F, type )( operation )
‣ QuadraticVariety( n, q, type )( operation )
‣ QuadraticVariety( n, F )( operation )
‣ QuadraticVariety( n, q )( operation )

Returns: a quadratic variety in a projective space

In the first two methods, the argument pg is a projective space, pring is a polynomial ring, and pol is a polynomial. The latter four return a standard non-degenerate quadric. The argument n is a projective dimension, F is a field, and q is a prime power that gives just the order of the defining field. If the type is given, then it will return a quadric of a particular type as follows:

Table: standard quadratic varieties
variety standard form characteristic p proj. dim. type
hyperbolic quadric X0 X1 + ... + Xn-1Xn p ≡ 3 mod 4 and p even odd "hyperbolic", "+", or "1"
hyperbolic quadric 2(X0 X1 + ... + Xn-1Xn ) p ≡ 1 mod 4 odd "hyperbolic", "+", or "1"
parabolic quadric X02 + X1 X2 + ... + Xn-1Xn p ≡ 1,3 mod 8 and p even even "parabolic", "o", or "0"
parabolic quadric t(X02 + X1 X2 + ... + Xn-1Xn), t a primitive element of GF(p) p ≡ 5,7 mod 8 even "parabolic", "o", or "0"
elliptic quadric X02 + X12 + X2 X3 + ... + Xn-1Xn p ≡ 3 mod 4 odd "elliptic", "-", or "-1"
elliptic quadric X02 + tX12 + X2 X3 + ... + Xn-1Xn , t a primitive element of GF(p) odd odd "elliptic", "-", or "-1"
elliptic quadric X02 + X0X1 + d X12 + X2 X3 + ... + Xn-1Xn , Tr(d) = 1 even odd "elliptic", "-", or "-1"

 


If no type is given, and only the dimension and field/field order are given, then it is assumed that the dimension is even and the user wants a standard parabolic quadric.

gap> F:=GF(5);
GF(5)
gap> r:=PolynomialRing(F,4);
GF(5)[x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4]
gap> x:=IndeterminatesOfPolynomialRing(r);
[ x_1, x_2, x_3, x_4 ]
gap> pg:=PG(3,F);
ProjectiveSpace(3, 5)
gap> Q:=x[2]*x[3]+x[4]^2;
x_2*x_3+x_4^2
gap> qv:=QuadraticVariety(pg,Q);
Quadratic Variety in ProjectiveSpace(3, 5)
gap> AsSet(List(Planes(pg),z->Size(Filtered(Points(z),x->x in qv))));
[ 1, 6, 11 ]
gap> qf:=QuadraticForm(qv);
< quadratic form >
gap> Display(qf);
Quadratic form
Gram Matrix:
 . . . .
 . . 1 .
 . . . .
 . . . 1
Polynomial: [ [  x_2*x_3+x_4^2 ] ]
gap> IsDegenerateForm(qf);
#I  Testing degeneracy of the *associated bilinear form*
true
gap> qv:=QuadraticVariety(3,F,"-");
Quadratic Variety in ProjectiveSpace(3, 5)
gap> PolarSpace(qv);
<polar space in ProjectiveSpace(3,GF(5)): x_1^2+Z(5)*x_2^2+x_3*x_4=0 >
gap> Display(last);
<polar space of rank 3 over GF(5)>
Non-singular elliptic quadratic form
Gram Matrix:
 1 . . .
 . 2 . .
 . . . 1
 . . . .
Polynomial: [ [  x_1^2+Z(5)*x_2^2+x_3*x_4 ] ]
Witt Index: 1
Bilinear form
Gram Matrix:
 2 . . .
 . 4 . .
 . . . 1
 . . 1 .
gap> qv:=QuadraticVariety(3,F,"+");
Quadratic Variety in ProjectiveSpace(3, 5)
gap> Display(last);
Quadratic Variety in ProjectiveSpace(3, 5)
 Polynomial: [ Z(5)*x_1*x_2+Z(5)*x_3*x_4 ]
 

11.3-3 QuadraticForm
‣ QuadraticForm( var )( attribute )

Returns: a quadratic form

When the argument var is a QuadraticVariety (11.3-2), this returns the associated quadratic form.

11.3-4 SesquilinearForm
‣ SesquilinearForm( var )( attribute )

Returns: a hermitian form

If the argument var is a HermitianVariety (11.3-1), this returns the associated hermitian form.

11.3-5 PolarSpace
‣ PolarSpace( var )( operation )

the argument var is a projective algebraic variety. When its list of definining polynomial contains exactly one polynomial, depending on its degree, the operation QuadraticFormByPolynomial or HermitianFormByPolynomial is used to compute a quadratic form or a hermitian form. These operations check whether this is possible, and produce an error message if not. If the conversion is possible, then the appropriate polar space is returned.

gap> f := GF(25);
GF(5^2)
gap> r := PolynomialRing(f,4);
GF(5^2)[x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4]
gap> ind := IndeterminatesOfPolynomialRing(r);
[ x_1, x_2, x_3, x_4 ]
gap> eq1 := Sum(List(ind,t->t^2));
x_1^2+x_2^2+x_3^2+x_4^2
gap> var := ProjectiveVariety(PG(3,f),[eq1]);   
Projective Variety in ProjectiveSpace(3, 25)
gap> PolarSpace(var);
<polar space in ProjectiveSpace(3,GF(5^2)): x_1^2+x_2^2+x_3^2+x_4^2=0 >
gap> eq2 := Sum(List(ind,t->t^4));
x_1^4+x_2^4+x_3^4+x_4^4
gap> var := ProjectiveVariety(PG(3,f),[eq2]);
Projective Variety in ProjectiveSpace(3, 25)
gap> PolarSpace(var);
Error, <poly> does not generate a Hermitian matrix called from
GramMatrixByPolynomialForHermitianForm( pol, gf, n, vars ) called from
HermitianFormByPolynomial( pol, pring, n ) called from
HermitianFormByPolynomial( eq, r ) called from
<function "unknown">( <arguments> )
 called from read-eval loop at line 16 of *stdin*
you can 'quit;' to quit to outer loop, or
you can 'return;' to continue
brk> quit;
gap> eq3 := Sum(List(ind,t->t^6));
x_1^6+x_2^6+x_3^6+x_4^6
gap> var := ProjectiveVariety(PG(3,f),[eq3]);
Projective Variety in ProjectiveSpace(3, 25)
gap> PolarSpace(var);
<polar space in ProjectiveSpace(3,GF(5^2)): x_1^6+x_2^6+x_3^6+x_4^6=0 >
 

11.4 Affine Varieties

An affine variety in FinInG is an algebraic variety in an affine space defined by a list of polynomials over a finite field.

11.4-1 AffineVariety
‣ AffineVariety( ag, pring, pollist )( operation )
‣ AffineVariety( ag, pollist )( operation )
‣ AlgebraicVariety( ag, pring, pollist )( operation )
‣ AlgebraicVariety( ag, pollist )( operation )

Returns: an affine algebraic variety

The argument ag is an affine space over a finite field F, the argument pring is a multivariate polynomial ring defined over (a subfield of) F, and pollist is a list of polynomials in pring.

11.5 Geometry maps

A geometry map is a map from a set of elements of a geometry to a set of elements of another geometry, which is not necessarily a geometry morphism. Examples are the SegreMap (11.6-3), the VeroneseMap (11.7-3), and the GrassmannMap (11.8-3).

11.5-1 Source
‣ Source( gm )( operation )

Returns: the source of a geometry map

The argument gm is a geometry map.

11.5-2 Range
‣ Range( gm )( operation )

Returns: the range of a geometry map

The argument gm is a geometry map.

11.5-3 ImageElm
‣ ImageElm( gm, x )( operation )

Returns: the image of an element under a geometry map

The argument gm is a geometry map, the element x is an element of the Source (11.5-1) of the geometry map gm.

11.5-4 ImagesSet
‣ ImagesSet( gm, elms )( operation )

Returns: the image of a subset of the source under a geometry map

The argument gm is a geometry map, the elements elms is a subset of the Source (11.5-1) of the geometry map gm.

11.5-5 \^
‣ \^( x, gm )( operation )

Returns: the image of an element of the source under a geometry map

The argument gm is a geometry map, the element x is an element of the Source (11.5-1) of the geometry map gm.

11.6 Segre Varieties

A Segre variety in FinInG is a projective algebraic variety in a projective space over a finite field. The set of points that lie on this variety is the image of the Segre map.

11.6-1 SegreVariety
‣ SegreVariety( listofpgs )( operation )
‣ SegreVariety( listofdims, field )( operation )
‣ SegreVariety( pg1, pg2 )( operation )
‣ SegreVariety( d1, d2, field )( operation )
‣ SegreVariety( d1, d2, q )( operation )

Returns: a Segre variety

The argument listofpgs is a list of projective spaces defined over the same finite field, say [PG(n1 -1,q), PG(n2 -1,q), ..., PG(nk -1,q)]. The operation also takes as input the list of dimensions (listofdims) and a finite field field (e.g. [n1, n2, ..., nk,GF(q)]). A Segre variety with only two factors (k=2), can also be constructed using the operation with two projective spaces pg1 and pg2 as arguments, or with two dimensions d1, d2, and a finite field field(or a prime power q). The operation returns a projective algebraic variety in the projective space of dimension n1 n2 ... nk-1.

11.6-2 PointsOfSegreVariety
‣ PointsOfSegreVariety( sv )( operation )
‣ Points( sv )( operation )

Returns: the points of a Segre variety

The argument sv is a Segre variety. This operation returns a set of points of the AmbientSpace (11.1-3) of the Segre variety. This set of points corresponds to the image of the SegreMap (11.6-3).

11.6-3 SegreMap
‣ SegreMap( listofpgs )( operation )
‣ SegreMap( listofdims, field )( operation )
‣ SegreMap( pg1, pg2 )( operation )
‣ SegreMap( d1, d2, field )( operation )
‣ SegreMap( d1, d2, q )( operation )
‣ SegreMap( sv )( operation )

Returns: a geometry map

The argument listofpgs is a list of projective spaces defined over the same finite field, say [PG(n1 -1,q), PG(n2 -1,q), ..., PG(nk -1,q)]. The operation also takes as input the list of dimensions (listofdims) and a finite field field (e.g. [n1, n2, ..., nk,GF(q)]). A Segre map with only two factors (k=2), can also be constructed using the operation with two projective spaces pg1 and pg2 as arguments, or with two dimensions d1, d2, and a finite field field(or a prime power q). The operation returns a function with domain the product of the point sets of projective spaces in the list [PG(n1 -1,q), PG(n2 -1,q), ..., PG(nk -1,q)] and image the set of points of the Segre variety (PointsOfSegreVariety (11.6-2)) in the projective space of dimension n1 n2 ... nk-1. When a Segre variety sv is given as input, the operation returns the associated Segre map.

gap> sv:=SegreVariety(2,2,9);
Segre Variety in ProjectiveSpace(8, 9)
gap> sm:=SegreMap(sv);
Segre Map of [ <points of ProjectiveSpace(2, 9)>, 
  <points of ProjectiveSpace(2, 9)> ]
gap> cart1:=Cartesian(Points(PG(2,9)),Points(PG(2,9)));;
gap> im1:=ImagesSet(sm,cart1);;
gap> Span(im1);
ProjectiveSpace(8, 9)
gap> l:=Random(Lines(PG(2,9)));
<a line in ProjectiveSpace(2, 9)>
gap> cart2:=Cartesian(Points(l),Points(PG(2,9)));;
gap> im2:=ImagesSet(sm,cart2);;
gap> Span(im2);
<a proj. 5-space in ProjectiveSpace(8, 9)>
gap> x:=Random(Points(PG(2,9)));
<a point in ProjectiveSpace(2, 9)>
gap> cart3:=Cartesian(Points(PG(2,9)),Points(x));;
gap> im3:=ImagesSet(sm,cart3);;
gap> pi:=Span(im3);
<a plane in ProjectiveSpace(8, 9)>
gap> AsSet(List(Points(pi),y->y in sv));
[ true ]

11.6-4 Source
‣ Source( sm )( operation )

Returns: the source of a Segre map

The argument sm is a SegreMap (11.6-3). This operation returns the cartesian product of the list consisting of the pointsets of the projective spaces that were used to construct the SegreMap (11.6-3).

11.7 Veronese Varieties

A Veronese variety in FinInG is a projective algebraic variety in a projective space over a finite field. The set of points that lie on this variety is the image of the Veronese map.

11.7-1 VeroneseVariety
‣ VeroneseVariety( pg )( operation )
‣ VeroneseVariety( n-1, field )( operation )
‣ VeroneseVariety( n-1, q )( operation )

Returns: a Veronese variety

The argument pg is a projective space defined over a finite field, say PG(n-1,q). The operation also takes as input the dimension and a finite field field (e.g. [n-1,q]). The operation returns a projective algebraic variety in the projective space of dimension (n^2+n)/2-1, known as the (quadratic) Veronese variety. It is the image of the map (x0,x1,...,xn)→ (x02,x0x1,...,x0xn,x12,x1x2,...,x1xn,...,xn2)

11.7-2 PointsOfVeroneseVariety
‣ PointsOfVeroneseVariety( vv )( operation )
‣ Points( vv )( operation )

Returns: the points of a Veronese variety

The argument vv is a Veronese variety. This operation returns a set of points of the AmbientSpace (11.1-3) of the Veronese variety. This set of points corresponds to the image of the VeroneseMap (11.7-3).

11.7-3 VeroneseMap
‣ VeroneseMap( pg )( operation )
‣ VeroneseMap( n-1, field )( operation )
‣ VeroneseMap( n-1, q )( operation )
‣ VeroneseMap( vv )( operation )

Returns: a geometry map

The argument pg is a projective space defined over a finite field, say PG(n-1,q). The operation also takes as input the dimension and a finite field field (e.g. [n-1,q]). The operation returns a function with domain the product of the point set of the projective space PG(n-1,q) and image the set of points of the Veronese variety (PointsOfVeroneseVariety (11.7-2)) in the projective space of dimension (n^2+n)/2-1. When a Veronese variety vv is given as input, the operation returns the associated Veronese map.

gap> pg:=PG(2,5);
ProjectiveSpace(2, 5)
gap> vv:=VeroneseVariety(pg);
Veronese Variety in ProjectiveSpace(5, 5)
gap> Size(Points(vv))=Size(Points(pg));
true
gap> vm:=VeroneseMap(vv);
Veronese Map of <points of ProjectiveSpace(2, 5)>
gap> r:=PolynomialRing(GF(5),3);
GF(5)[x_1,x_2,x_3]
gap> f:=r.1^2-r.2*r.3;
x_1^2-x_2*x_3
gap> c:=AlgebraicVariety(pg,r,[f]);
Projective Variety in ProjectiveSpace(2, 5)
gap> pts:=List(Points(c));
[ <a point in ProjectiveSpace(2, 5)>, <a point in ProjectiveSpace(2, 5)>, 
  <a point in ProjectiveSpace(2, 5)>, <a point in ProjectiveSpace(2, 5)>, 
  <a point in ProjectiveSpace(2, 5)>, <a point in ProjectiveSpace(2, 5)> ]
gap> Dimension(Span(ImagesSet(vm,pts)));
4
 
	

11.7-4 Source
‣ Source( vm )( operation )

Returns: the source of a Veronese map

The argument vm is a VeroneseMap (11.7-3). This operation returns the pointset of the projective space that was used to construct the VeroneseMap (11.7-3).

11.8 Grassmann Varieties

A Grassmann variety in FinInG is a projective algebraic variety in a projective space over a finite field. The set of points that lie on this variety is the image of the Grassmann map.

11.8-1 GrassmannVariety
‣ GrassmannVariety( k, pg )( operation )
‣ GrassmannVariety( subspaces )( operation )
‣ GrassmannVariety( k, n, q )( operation )

Returns: a Grassmann variety

The argument pg is a projective space defined over a finite field, say PG(n,q), and argument k is an integer (k at least 1 and at most n-2) and denotes the projective dimension determining the Grassmann Variety. The operation also takes as input the set subspaces of subspaces of a projective space, or the dimension k, the dimension n and the size q of the finite field (k at least 1 and at most n-2). The operation returns a projective algebraic variety known as the Grassmann variety.

11.8-2 PointsOfGrassmannVariety
‣ PointsOfGrassmannVariety( gv )( operation )
‣ Points( gv )( operation )

Returns: the points of a Grassmann variety

The argument gv is a Grassmann variety. This operation returns a set of points of the AmbientSpace (11.1-3) of the Grassmann variety. This set of points corresponds to the image of the GrassmannMap (11.8-3).

11.8-3 GrassmannMap
‣ GrassmannMap( k, pg )( operation )
‣ GrassmannMap( subspaces )( operation )
‣ GrassmannMap( k, n, q )( operation )
‣ GrassmannMap( gv )( operation )

Returns: a geometry map

The argument pg is a projective space defined over a finite field, say PG(n,q), and argument k is an integer (k at least 1 and at most n-2), and denotes the projective dimension determining the Grassmann Variety. The operation also takes as input the set subspaces of subspaces of a projective space, or the dimension k, the dimension n and the size q of the finite field (k at least 1 and at most n-2). The operation returns a function with domain the set of subspaces of dimension k in the n-dimensional projective space over GF(q), and image the set of points of the Grassmann variety (PointsOfGrassmannVariety (11.8-2)). When a Grassmann variety gv is given as input, the operation returns the associated Grassmann map.

11.8-4 Source
‣ Source( gm )( operation )

Returns: the source of a Grassmann map

The argument gm is a GrassmannMap (11.8-3). This operation returns the set of subspaces of the projective space that was used to construct the GrassmannMap (11.8-3).

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