9 Bistellar flips

9.2 Functions for bistellar flips

9.2-1 SCBistellarOptions

9.2-2 SCEquivalent

9.2-3 SCExamineComplexBistellar

9.2-4 SCIntFunc.SCChooseMove

9.2-5 SCIsKStackedSphere

9.2-6 SCBistellarIsManifold

9.2-7 SCIsMovableComplex

9.2-8 SCMove

9.2-9 SCMoves

9.2-10 SCRMoves

9.2-11 SCRandomize

9.2-12 SCReduceAsSubcomplex

9.2-13 SCReduceComplex

9.2-14 SCReduceComplexEx

9.2-15 SCReduceComplexFast

9.2-1 SCBistellarOptions

9.2-2 SCEquivalent

9.2-3 SCExamineComplexBistellar

9.2-4 SCIntFunc.SCChooseMove

9.2-5 SCIsKStackedSphere

9.2-6 SCBistellarIsManifold

9.2-7 SCIsMovableComplex

9.2-8 SCMove

9.2-9 SCMoves

9.2-10 SCRMoves

9.2-11 SCRandomize

9.2-12 SCReduceAsSubcomplex

9.2-13 SCReduceComplex

9.2-14 SCReduceComplexEx

9.2-15 SCReduceComplexFast

Since two combinatorial manifolds are already considered distinct to each other as soon as they are not combinatorially isomorphic, a topological PL-manifold is represented by a whole class of combinatorial manifolds. Thus, a frequent question when working with combinatorial manifolds is whether two such objects are PL-homeomorphic or not. One possibility to approach this problem, i. e. to find combinatorially distinct members of the class of a PL-manifold, is a heuristic algorithm using the concept of bistellar moves.

**Definition** (Bistellar moves [Pac87])

Let M be a combinatorial d-manifold (d-pseudomanifold), γ = ⟨ v_0 , ... , v_k ⟩ a k-face and δ = ⟨ w_0 , ... , w_d-k ⟩ a (d-k+1)-tuple of vertices of M that does not span a (d-k)-face in M, 0 ≤ k ≤ d, such that { v_0 , ..., v_k } ∩ { w_0 , ... , w_d-k } = ∅ and { v_0 , ... , v_k, w_0 , ... w_k-d } spans exactly d-k+1 facets. Then the operation

κ_(γ,δ) ( M ) = M ∖ (γ ⋆ ∂ δ) ∪ (∂ γ ⋆ δ)

is called a *bistellar (d-k)-move*.

In other words: If there exists a bouquet D ⊂ M of d-k+1 facets on a subset of vertices W ⊂ V of order d+2 with a common k-face γ and the complement δ of the vertices of γ in W does not span a (d-k)-face in M we can remove D and replace it by a bouquet of k+1 facets E ⊂ M with vertex set W with a common face spanned by δ. By construction ∂ D = ∂ E and the altered complex is again a combinatorial d-manifold (d-pseudomanifold). See Fig. 11 for a bistellar 1-move of a 2-dimensional complex, see Fig. 12 for all bistellar moves in dimension 3.

A bistellar 0-move is a *stellar subdivision*, i. e. the subdivision of a facet δ into d+1 new facets by introducing a new vertex at the center of δ (cf. Fig. 12 on the left). In particular, the vertex set of a combinatorial manifold (pseudomanifold) is not invariant under bistellar moves. For any bistellar (d-k)-move κ_(γ,δ) we have an inverse bistellar k-move κ^-1_(γ,δ) = κ_(δ,γ) such that κ_(δ,γ) ( κ_(γ,δ) (M)) = M. If for two combinatorial manifolds M and N there exist a sequence of bistellar moves that transforms one into the other, M and N are called *bistellarly equivalent*. So far bistellar moves are local operations on combinatorial manifolds that change its combinatorial type. However, the strength of the concept in combinatorial topology is a consequence of the following

**Theorem** (Bistellar moves [Pac87])

Two combinatorial manifolds (pseudomanifolds) M and N are PL homeomorphic if and only if they are bistellarly equivalent.

Unfortunately Pachners theorem does not guarantee that the search for a connecting sequence of bistellar moves between M and N terminates. Hence, using bistellar moves, we can not prove that M and N are not PL-homeomorphic. However, there is a very effective simulated annealing approach that is able to give a positive answer in a lot of cases. The heuristic was first implemented by Bjoerner and Lutz in [BL00]. The functions presented in this chapter are based on this code which can be used for several tasks:

In many cases the heuristic reduces a given triangulation but does not reach a minimal triangulation after a reasonable amount of flips. Thus, we usually can not expect the algorithm to terminate. However, in some cases the program normally stops after a small number of flips:

Technical note: Since bistellar flips do not respect the combinatorial properties of a complex, no attention to the original vertex labels is payed, i. e. the flipped complex will be relabeled whenever its vertex labels become different from the standard labeling (for example after every reverse 0-move).

`‣ SCBistellarOptions` | ( global variable ) |

Record of global variables to adjust output an behavior of bistellar moves in `SCIntFunc.SCChooseMove`

(9.2-4) and `SCReduceComplexEx`

(9.2-14) respectively.

`BaseRelaxation`

: determines the length of the relaxation period. Default: 3`BaseHeating`

: determines the length of the heating period. Default: 4`Relaxation`

: value of the current relaxation period. Default: 0`Heating`

: value of the current heating period. Default: 0`MaxRounds`

: maximal over all number of bistellar flips that will be performed. Default: 500000`MaxInterval`

: maximal number of bistellar flips that will be performed without a change of the f-vector of the moved complex. Default: 100000`Mode`

: flip mode, 0=reducing, 1=comparing, 2=reduce as sub-complex, 3=randomize. Default: 0`WriteLevel`

: 0=no output, 1=storing of every vertex minimal complex to user library, 2=e-mail notification. Default: 1`MailNotifyIntervall`

: (minimum) number of seconds between two e-mail notifications. Default: 24 ⋅ 60 ⋅ 60 (one day)`MaxIntervalIsManifold`

: maximal number of bistellar flips that will be performed without a change of the f-vector of a vertex link while trying to prove that the complex is a combinatorial manifold. Default: 5000`MaxIntervalRandomize := 50`

: number of flips performed to create a randomized sphere. Default: 50

gap> SCBistellarOptions.BaseRelaxation; 3 gap> SCBistellarOptions.BaseHeating; 4 gap> SCBistellarOptions.Relaxation; 0 gap> SCBistellarOptions.Heating; 0 gap> SCBistellarOptions.MaxRounds; 500000 gap> SCBistellarOptions.MaxInterval; 100000 gap> SCBistellarOptions.Mode; 0 gap> SCBistellarOptions.WriteLevel; 0 gap> SCBistellarOptions.MailNotifyInterval; 86400 gap> SCBistellarOptions.MaxIntervalIsManifold; 5000 gap> SCBistellarOptions.MaxIntervalRandomize; 50

`‣ SCEquivalent` ( complex1, complex2 ) | ( method ) |

Returns: `true`

or `false`

upon success, `fail`

or a list of type `[ fail, SCSimplicialComplex, Integer, facet list]`

otherwise.

Checks if the simplicial complex `complex1` (which has to fulfill the weak pseudomanifold property with empty boundary) can be reduced to the simplicial complex `complex2` via bistellar moves, i. e. if `complex1` and `complex2` are PL-homeomorphic. Note that in general the problem is undecidable. In this case `fail`

is returned.

It is recommended to use a minimal triangulation `complex2` for the check if possible.

Internally calls `SCReduceComplexEx`

(9.2-14) `(complex1,complex2,1,SCIntFunc.SCChooseMove);`

gap> SCBistellarOptions.WriteLevel:=0;; # do not save complexes to disk gap> obj:=SC([[1,2],[2,3],[3,4],[4,5],[5,6],[6,1]]);; # hexagon gap> refObj:=SCBdSimplex(2);; # triangle as a (minimal) reference object gap> SCEquivalent(obj,refObj); #I SCReduceComplexEx: complexes are bistellarly equivalent. true

`‣ SCExamineComplexBistellar` ( complex ) | ( method ) |

Returns: simplicial complex passed as argument with additional properties upon success, `fail`

otherwise.

Computes the face lattice, the f-vector, the AS-determinant, the dimension and the maximal vertex label of `complex`.

gap> obj:=SC([[1,2],[2,3],[3,4],[4,5],[5,6],[6,1]]); [SimplicialComplex Properties known: Dim, FacetsEx, Name, Vertices. Name="unnamed complex 7" Dim=1 /SimplicialComplex] gap> SCExamineComplexBistellar(obj); [SimplicialComplex Properties known: AltshulerSteinberg, BoundaryEx, Dim, FVector, FacetsEx, HasBoundary, IsPseudoManifold, IsPure, Name, NumFaces[], SkelExs[], Vertices. Name="unnamed complex 7" Dim=1 AltshulerSteinberg=0 FVector=[ 6, 6 ] HasBoundary=false IsPseudoManifold=true IsPure=true /SimplicialComplex]

`‣ SCIntFunc.SCChooseMove` ( dim, moves ) | ( function ) |

Returns: a bistellar move, i. e. a pair of lists upon success, `fail`

otherwise.

Since the problem of finding a bistellar flip sequence that reduces a simplicial complex is undecidable, we have to use an heuristic approach to choose the next move.

The implemented strategy `SCIntFunc.SCChooseMove`

first tries to directly remove vertices, edges, i-faces in increasing dimension etc. If this is not possible it inserts high dimensional faces in decreasing co-dimension. To do this in an efficient way a number of parameters have to be adjusted, namely `SCBistellarOptions.BaseHeating`

and `SCBistellarOptions.BaseRelaxation`

. See `SCBistellarOptions`

(9.2-1) for further options.

If this strategy does not work for you, just implement a customized strategy and pass it to `SCReduceComplexEx`

(9.2-14).

See `SCRMoves`

(9.2-10) for further information.

`‣ SCIsKStackedSphere` ( complex, k ) | ( method ) |

Returns: a list upon success, `fail`

otherwise.

Checks, whether the given simplicial complex `complex` that must be a PL d-sphere is a `k`-stacked sphere with 1≤ k≤ ⌊fracd+22⌋ using a randomized algorithm based on bistellar moves (see [Eff11b], [Eff11a]). Note that it is not checked whether `complex` is a PL sphere -- if not, the algorithm will not succeed. Returns a list upon success: the first entry is a boolean, where `true`

means that the complex is `k`

-stacked and `false`

means that the complex cannot be `k`-stacked. A value of -1 means that the question could not be decided. The second argument contains a simplicial complex that, in case of success, contains the trigangulated (d+1)-ball B with ∂ B=S and operatornameskel_d-k(B)=operatornameskel_d-k(S), where S denotes the simplicial complex passed in `complex`.

Internally calls `SCReduceComplexEx`

(9.2-14).

gap> SCLib.SearchByName("S^4~S^1"); [ [ 463, "S^4~S^1 (VT)" ], [ 1474, "S^4~S^1 (VT)" ], [ 1475, "S^4~S^1 (VT)" ], [ 2477, "S^4~S^1 (VT)" ], [ 4395, "S^4~S^1 (VT)" ], [ 4396, "S^4~S^1 (VT)" ], [ 4397, "S^4~S^1 (VT)" ], [ 4398, "S^4~S^1 (VT)" ], [ 4399, "S^4~S^1 (VT)" ], [ 4402, "S^4~S^1 (VT)" ], [ 4403, "S^4~S^1 (VT)" ], [ 4404, "S^4~S^1 (VT)" ] ] gap> c:=SCLib.Load(last[1][1]);; gap> l:=SCLink(c,1); [SimplicialComplex Properties known: Dim, FacetsEx, Name, Vertices. Name="lk([ 1 ]) in S^4~S^1 (VT)" Dim=4 /SimplicialComplex] gap> SCIsKStackedSphere(l,1); #I SCIsKStackedSphere: checking if complex is a 1-stacked sphere... #I SCIsKStackedSphere: try 1/1 #I SCIsKStackedSphere: complex is a 1-stacked sphere. [ true, [SimplicialComplex Properties known: Dim, FacetsEx, Name, Vertices. Name="Filled 1-stacked sphere (lk([ 1 ]) in S^4~S^1 (VT))" Dim=5 /SimplicialComplex] ]

`‣ SCBistellarIsManifold` ( complex ) | ( method ) |

Returns: `true`

or `false`

upon success, `fail`

otherwise.

Tries to prove that a closed simplicial d-pseudomanifold is a combinatorial manifold by reducing its vertex links to the boundary of the d-simplex.

`false`

is returned if it can be proven that there exists a vertex link which is not PL-homeomorphic to the standard PL-sphere, `true`

is returned if all vertex links are bistellarly equivalent to the boundary of the simplex, `fail`

is returned if the algorithm does not terminate after the number of rounds indicated by `SCBistellarOptions.MaxIntervallIsManifold`

.

Internally calls `SCReduceComplexEx`

(9.2-14) `(link,SCEmpty(),0,SCIntFunc.SCChooseMove);`

for every link of `complex`. Note that `false`

is returned in case of a bounded manifold.

See `SCIsManifoldEx`

(12.1-18) and `SCIsManifold`

(12.1-17) for alternative methods for manifold verification.

gap> c:=SCBdCrossPolytope(3);; gap> SCBistellarIsManifold(c); true

`‣ SCIsMovableComplex` ( complex ) | ( method ) |

Returns: `true`

or `false`

upon success, `fail`

otherwise.

Checks if a simplicial complex `complex` can be modified by bistellar moves, i. e. if it is a pure simplicial complex which fulfills the weak pseudomanifold property with empty boundary.

gap> c:=SCBdCrossPolytope(3);; gap> SCIsMovableComplex(c); true

Complex with non-empty boundary:

gap> c:=SC([[1,2],[2,3],[3,4],[3,1]]);; gap> SCIsMovableComplex(c); false

`‣ SCMove` ( c, move ) | ( method ) |

Returns: simplicial complex of type `SCSimplicialComplex`

upon success, `fail`

otherwise.

Applies the bistellar move `move` to a simplicial complex `c`. `move` is given as a (r+1)-tuple together with a (d+1-r)-tuple if d is the dimension of `c` and if `move` is a r-move. See `SCRMoves`

(9.2-10) for detailed information about bistellar r-moves.

Note: `move` and `c` should be given in standard labeling to ensure a correct result.

gap> obj:=SC([[1,2],[2,3],[3,4],[4,1]]); [SimplicialComplex Properties known: Dim, FacetsEx, Name, Vertices. Name="unnamed complex 5" Dim=1 /SimplicialComplex] gap> moves:=SCMoves(obj); [ [ [ [ 1, 2 ], [ ] ], [ [ 1, 4 ], [ ] ], [ [ 2, 3 ], [ ] ], [ [ 3, 4 ], [ ] ] ], [ [ [ 1 ], [ 2, 4 ] ], [ [ 2 ], [ 1, 3 ] ], [ [ 3 ], [ 2, 4 ] ], [ [ 4 ], [ 1, 3 ] ] ] ] gap> obj:=SCMove(obj,last[2][1]); [SimplicialComplex Properties known: Dim, FacetsEx, Name, NumFaces[], SkelExs[], Vertices. Name="unnamed complex 6" Dim=1 /SimplicialComplex]

`‣ SCMoves` ( complex ) | ( method ) |

Returns: a list of list of pairs of lists upon success, `fail`

otherwise.

See `SCRMoves`

(9.2-10) for further information.

gap> c:=SCBdCrossPolytope(3);; gap> moves:=SCMoves(c); [ [ [ [ 1, 3, 5 ], [ ] ], [ [ 1, 3, 6 ], [ ] ], [ [ 1, 4, 5 ], [ ] ], [ [ 1, 4, 6 ], [ ] ], [ [ 2, 3, 5 ], [ ] ], [ [ 2, 3, 6 ], [ ] ], [ [ 2, 4, 5 ], [ ] ], [ [ 2, 4, 6 ], [ ] ] ], [ [ [ 1, 3 ], [ 5, 6 ] ], [ [ 1, 4 ], [ 5, 6 ] ], [ [ 1, 5 ], [ 3, 4 ] ], [ [ 1, 6 ], [ 3, 4 ] ], [ [ 2, 3 ], [ 5, 6 ] ], [ [ 2, 4 ], [ 5, 6 ] ], [ [ 2, 5 ], [ 3, 4 ] ], [ [ 2, 6 ], [ 3, 4 ] ], [ [ 3, 5 ], [ 1, 2 ] ], [ [ 3, 6 ], [ 1, 2 ] ], [ [ 4, 5 ], [ 1, 2 ] ], [ [ 4, 6 ], [ 1, 2 ] ] ] , [ ] ]

`‣ SCRMoves` ( complex, r ) | ( method ) |

Returns: a list of pairs of the form `[ list, list ]`

, `fail`

otherwise.

A bistellar r-move of a d-dimensional combinatorial manifold `complex` is a r-face m_1 together with a d-r-tuple m_2 where m_1 is a common face of exactly (d+1-r) facets and m_2 is not a face of `complex`.

The r-move removes all facets containing m_1 and replaces them by the (r+1) faces obtained by uniting m_2 with any subset of m_1 of order r.

The resulting complex is PL-homeomorphic to `complex`.

gap> c:=SCBdCrossPolytope(3);; gap> moves:=SCRMoves(c,1); [ [ [ 1, 3 ], [ 5, 6 ] ], [ [ 1, 4 ], [ 5, 6 ] ], [ [ 1, 5 ], [ 3, 4 ] ], [ [ 1, 6 ], [ 3, 4 ] ], [ [ 2, 3 ], [ 5, 6 ] ], [ [ 2, 4 ], [ 5, 6 ] ], [ [ 2, 5 ], [ 3, 4 ] ], [ [ 2, 6 ], [ 3, 4 ] ], [ [ 3, 5 ], [ 1, 2 ] ], [ [ 3, 6 ], [ 1, 2 ] ], [ [ 4, 5 ], [ 1, 2 ] ], [ [ 4, 6 ], [ 1, 2 ] ] ]

`‣ SCRandomize` ( complex[[, rounds][, allowedmoves]] ) | ( function ) |

Returns: a simplicial complex upon success, `fail`

otherwise.

Randomizes the given simplicial complex `complex` via bistellar moves chosen at random. By passing the optional array `allowedmoves`, which has to be a dense array of integer values of length `SCDim(complex)`

, certain moves can be allowed or forbidden in the proccess. An entry `allowedmoves[i]=1`

allows (i-1)-moves and an entry `allowedmoves[i]=0`

forbids (i-1)-moves in the randomization process.

With optional positive integer argument `rounds`, the amount of randomization can be controlled. The higher the value of `rounds`, the more bistellar moves will be randomly performed on `complex`. Note that the argument `rounds` overrides the global setting `SCBistellarOptions.MaxIntervalRandomize`

(this value is used, if `rounds` is not specified). Internally calls `SCReduceComplexEx`

(9.2-14).

gap> c:=SCRandomize(SCBdSimplex(4)); [SimplicialComplex Properties known: Dim, FacetsEx, Name, Vertices. Name="Randomized S^3_5" Dim=3 /SimplicialComplex] gap> c.F; [ 16, 65, 98, 49 ]

`‣ SCReduceAsSubcomplex` ( complex1, complex2 ) | ( method ) |

Returns: `SCBistellarOptions.WriteLevel=0`

: a triple of the form `[ boolean, simplicial complex, rounds performed ]`

upon termination of the algorithm.

`SCBistellarOptions.WriteLevel=1`

: A library of simplicial complexes with a number of complexes from the reducing process and (upon termination) a triple of the form `[ boolean, simplicial complex, rounds performed ]`

.

`SCBistellarOptions.WriteLevel=2`

: A mail in case a smaller version of `complex1` was found, a library of simplicial complexes with a number of complexes from the reducing process and (upon termination) a triple of the form `[ boolean, simplicial complex, rounds performed ]`

.

Returns `fail`

upon an error.

Reduces a simplicial complex `complex1` (satisfying the weak pseudomanifold property with empty boundary) as a sub-complex of the simplicial complex `complex2`.

Main application: Reduce a sub-complex of the cross polytope without introducing diagonals.

Internally calls `SCReduceComplexEx`

(9.2-14) `(complex1,complex2,2,SCIntFunc.SCChooseMove);`

gap> c:=SCFromFacets([[1,3],[3,5],[4,5],[4,1]]);; gap> SCBistellarOptions.WriteLevel:=0;; # do not save complexes gap> SCReduceAsSubcomplex(c,SCBdCrossPolytope(3)); [ true, [SimplicialComplex Properties known: Dim, FacetsEx, Name, Vertices. Name="unnamed complex 36" Dim=1 /SimplicialComplex], 1 ]

`‣ SCReduceComplex` ( complex ) | ( method ) |

Returns: `SCBistellarOptions.WriteLevel=0`

: a triple of the form `[ boolean, simplicial complex, rounds performed ]`

upon termination of the algorithm.

`SCBistellarOptions.WriteLevel=1`

: A library of simplicial complexes with a number of complexes from the reducing process and (upon termination) a triple of the form `[ boolean, simplicial complex, rounds performed ]`

.

`SCBistellarOptions.WriteLevel=2`

: A mail in case a smaller version of `complex1` was found, a library of simplicial complexes with a number of complexes from the reducing process and (upon termination) a triple of the form `[ boolean, simplicial complex, rounds performed ]`

.

Returns `fail`

upon an error..

Reduces a pure simplicial complex `complex` satisfying the weak pseudomanifold property via bistellar moves. Internally calls `SCReduceComplexEx`

(9.2-14) `(complex,SCEmpty(),0,SCIntFunc.SCChooseMove);`

gap> obj:=SC([[1,2],[2,3],[3,4],[4,5],[5,6],[6,1]]);; # hexagon gap> SCBistellarOptions.WriteLevel:=0;; # do not save complexes gap> tmp := SCReduceComplex(obj); [ true, [SimplicialComplex Properties known: Dim, FacetsEx, Name, Vertices. Name="unnamed complex 27" Dim=1 /SimplicialComplex], 3 ]

`‣ SCReduceComplexEx` ( complex, refComplex, mode, choosemove ) | ( function ) |

Returns: `SCBistellarOptions.WriteLevel=0`

: a triple of the form `[ boolean, simplicial complex, rounds ]`

upon termination of the algorithm.

`SCBistellarOptions.WriteLevel=1`

: A library of simplicial complexes with a number of complexes from the reducing process and (upon termination) a triple of the form `[ boolean, simplicial complex, rounds ]`

.

`SCBistellarOptions.WriteLevel=2`

: A mail in case a smaller version of `complex1` was found, a library of simplicial complexes with a number of complexes from the reducing process and (upon termination) a triple of the form `[ boolean, simplicial complex, rounds ]`

.

Returns `fail`

upon an error.

Reduces a pure simplicial complex `complex` satisfying the weak pseudomanifold property via bistellar moves `mode = 0`, compares it to the simplicial complex `refComplex` (`mode = 1`) or reduces it as a sub-complex of `refComplex` (`mode = 2`).

`choosemove` is a function containing a flip strategy, see also `SCIntFunc.SCChooseMove`

(9.2-4).

The currently smallest complex is stored to the variable `minComplex`

, the currently smallest f-vector to `minF`

. Note that in general the algorithm will not stop until the maximum number of rounds is reached. You can adjust the maximum number of rounds via the property `SCBistellarOptions`

(9.2-1). The number of rounds performed is returned in the third entry of the triple returned by this function.

This function is called by

`SCReduceComplex`

(9.2-13),`SCEquivalent`

(9.2-2),`SCReduceAsSubcomplex`

(9.2-12),`SCBistellarIsManifold`

(9.2-6).`SCRandomize`

(9.2-11).

Please see `SCMailIsPending`

(15.2-3) for further information about the email notification system in case `SCBistellarOptions.WriteLevel`

is set to 2.

gap> c:=SCBdCrossPolytope(4);; gap> SCBistellarOptions.WriteLevel:=0;; # do not save complexes gap> SCReduceComplexEx(c,SCEmpty(),0,SCIntFunc.SCChooseMove); [ true, [SimplicialComplex Properties known: Dim, FacetsEx, Name, Vertices. Name="unnamed complex 13" Dim=3 /SimplicialComplex], 7 ] gap> SCReduceComplexEx(c,SCEmpty(),0,SCIntFunc.SCChooseMove); [ true, [SimplicialComplex Properties known: Dim, FacetsEx, Name, Vertices. Name="unnamed complex 18" Dim=3 /SimplicialComplex], 9 ] gap> SCMailSetAddress("johndoe@somehost"); true gap> SCMailIsEnabled(); true gap> SCReduceComplexEx(c,SCEmpty(),0,SCIntFunc.SCChooseMove); [ true, [SimplicialComplex Properties known: Dim, FacetsEx, Name, Vertices. Name="unnamed complex 23" Dim=3 /SimplicialComplex], 7 ]

Content of sent mail:

Greetings master, this is simpcomp 2.1.9 running on comp01.maths.fancytown.edu I have been working hard for 0 seconds and have a message for you, see below. #### START MESSAGE #### SCReduceComplex: Computed locally minimal complex after 7 rounds: [SimplicialComplex Properties known: Boundary, Chi, Date, Dim, F, Faces, Facets, G, H, HasBoundary, Homology, IsConnected, IsManifold, IsPM, Name, SCVertices, Vertices. Name="ReducedComplex_5_vertices_7" Dim=3 Chi=0 F=[ 5, 10, 10, 5 ] G=[ 0, 0 ] H=[ 1, 1, 1, 1 ] HasBoundary=false Homology=[ [ 0, [ ] ], [ 0, [ ] ], [ 0, [ ] ], [ 1, [ ] ] ] IsConnected=true IsPM=true /SimplicialComplex] ##### END MESSAGE ##### That's all, I hope this is good news! Have a nice day.

`‣ SCReduceComplexFast` ( complex ) | ( function ) |

Returns: a simplicial complex upon success, `fail`

otherwise.

Same as `SCReduceComplex`

(9.2-13), but calls an external binary provided with the simpcomp package.

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