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### 2 Lists, Sets and Strings

#### 2.1 Functions for lists

##### 2.1-1 DifferencesList
 ‣ DifferencesList( L ) ( function )

This function has been transferred from package ResClasses.

It takes a list L of length n and outputs the list of length n-1 containing all the differences L[i]-L[i-1].


gap> List( [1..12], n->n^3 );
[ 1, 8, 27, 64, 125, 216, 343, 512, 729, 1000, 1331, 1728 ]
gap> DifferencesList( last );
[ 7, 19, 37, 61, 91, 127, 169, 217, 271, 331, 397 ]
gap> DifferencesList( last );
[ 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54, 60, 66 ]
gap> DifferencesList( last );
[ 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6 ]



##### 2.1-2 QuotientsList
 ‣ QuotientsList( L ) ( function )
 ‣ FloatQuotientsList( L ) ( function )

These functions have been transferred from package ResClasses.

They take a list L of length n and output the quotients L[i]/L[i-1] of consecutive entries in L. An error is returned if an entry is zero.


gap> List( [0..10], n -> Factorial(n) );
[ 1, 1, 2, 6, 24, 120, 720, 5040, 40320, 362880, 3628800 ]
gap> QuotientsList( last );
[ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 ]
gap> L := [ 1, 3, 5, -1, -3, -5 ];;
gap> QuotientsList( L );
[ 3, 5/3, -1/5, 3, 5/3 ]
gap> FloatQuotientsList( L );
[ 3., 1.66667, -0.2, 3., 1.66667 ]
gap> QuotientsList( [ 2, 1, 0, -1, -2 ] );
[ 1/2, 0, fail, 2 ]
gap> FloatQuotientsList( [1..10] );
[ 2., 1.5, 1.33333, 1.25, 1.2, 1.16667, 1.14286, 1.125, 1.11111 ]
gap> Product( last );
10.



##### 2.1-3 SearchCycle
 ‣ SearchCycle( L ) ( operation )

This function has been transferred from package RCWA.

SearchCycle is a tool to find likely cycles in lists. What, precisely, a cycle is, is deliberately fuzzy here, and may possibly even change. The idea is that the beginning of the list may be anything, following that the same pattern needs to be repeated several times in order to be recognized as a cycle.


gap> L := [1..20];;  L[1]:=13;;
gap> for i in [1..19] do
>        if IsOddInt(L[i]) then L[i+1]:=3*L[i]+1; else L[i+1]:=L[i]/2; fi;
>    od;
gap> L;
[ 13, 40, 20, 10, 5, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1, 4, 2, 1, 4, 2, 1, 4, 2, 1, 4 ]
gap> SearchCycle( L );
[ 1, 4, 2 ]
gap> n := 1;;  L := [n];;
gap> for i in [1..100] do  n:=(n^2+1) mod 1093;  Add(L,n);  od;
gap> L;
[ 1, 2, 5, 26, 677, 363, 610, 481, 739, 715, 795, 272, 754, 157, 604, 848,
1004, 271, 211, 802, 521, 378, 795, 272, 754, 157, 604, 848, 1004, 271,
211, 802, 521, 378, 795, 272, 754, 157, 604, 848, 1004, 271, 211, 802, 521,
378, 795, 272, 754, 157, 604, 848, 1004, 271, 211, 802, 521, 378, 795, 272,
754, 157, 604, 848, 1004, 271, 211, 802, 521, 378, 795, 272, 754, 157, 604,
848, 1004, 271, 211, 802, 521, 378, 795, 272, 754, 157, 604, 848, 1004,
271, 211, 802, 521, 378, 795, 272, 754, 157, 604, 848, 1004 ]
gap> C := SearchCycle( L );
[ 157, 604, 848, 1004, 271, 211, 802, 521, 378, 795, 272, 754 ]
gap> P := Positions( L, 157 );
[ 14, 26, 38, 50, 62, 74, 86, 98 ]
gap> Length( C );  DifferencesList( P );
12
[ 12, 12, 12, 12, 12, 12, 12 ]



##### 2.1-4 RandomCombination
 ‣ RandomCombination( S, k ) ( operation )

This function has been transferred from package ResClasses.

It returns a random unordered k-tuple of distinct elements of a setÂ S.


gap> ## "6 aus 49" is a common lottery in Germany
gap> RandomCombination( [1..49], 6 );
[ 2, 16, 24, 26, 37, 47 ]



##### 2.1-5 PrintListOneItemPerLine
 ‣ PrintListOneItemPerLine( L ) ( operation )

This function has been transferred from package XMod.

Printing lists vertically, rather than horizontally, may be useful when the entries are lengthy.


gap> L := KnownPropertiesOfObject( GeneratorsOfGroup( SymmetricGroup(5) ) );;
gap> PrintListOneItemPerLine( L );
[ IsFinite,
IsSmallList,
IsGeneratorsOfMagmaWithInverses,
IsGeneratorsOfSemigroup,
IsSubsetLocallyFiniteGroup
]



##### 2.1-6 PositionsNonzero
 ‣ PositionsNonzero( L ) ( operation )

This function is being transferred from package QPA.

It returns the list of positions of all nonzero elements in a list by applying the operation PositionsProperty using the property not(IsZero).


gap> PositionsNonzero( [0,1,0,2,0];
[ 2, 4 ]
gap> PositionsNonzero( [0,0,0] );
[  ]
gap> PositionsNonzero( [-5..5] );
[ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 ]



##### 2.1-7 NullList
 ‣ NullList( n, F ) ( operation )

This function is being transferred from package QPA.

A call of NullList(n,F) returns a list of length n whose entries are the zero in the field F. (Once the transfer is complete, the restriction that F should be a field will be relaxed.)


gap> NullList( 5, Rationals );
[ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 ]



#### 2.2 Distinct and Common Representatives

##### 2.2-1 DistinctRepresentatives
 ‣ DistinctRepresentatives( list ) ( operation )
 ‣ CommonRepresentatives( list ) ( operation )
 ‣ CommonTransversal( grp, subgrp ) ( operation )
 ‣ IsCommonTransversal( grp, subgrp, list ) ( operation )

These functions have been transferred from package XMod.

They deal with lists of subsets of [1 ... n] and construct systems of distinct and common representatives using simple, non-recursive, combinatorial algorithms.

When L is a set of n subsets of [1 ... n] and the Hall condition is satisfied (the union of any k subsets has at least k elements), a set of DistinctRepresentatives exists.

When J,K are both lists of n sets, the function CommonRepresentatives returns two lists: the set of representatives, and a permutation of the subsets of the second list. It may also be used to provide a common transversal for sets of left and right cosets of a subgroup H of a group G, although a greedy algorithm is usually quicker.


gap> J := [ [1,2,3], [3,4], [3,4], [1,2,4] ];;
gap> DistinctRepresentatives( J );
[ 1, 3, 4, 2 ]
gap> K := [ [3,4], [1,2], [2,3], [2,3,4] ];;
gap> CommonRepresentatives( J, K );
[ [ 3, 3, 3, 1 ], [ 1, 3, 4, 2 ] ]
gap> d16 := DihedralGroup( IsPermGroup, 16 );
Group([ (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8), (2,8)(3,7)(4,6) ])
gap> SetName( d16, "d16" );
gap> c4 := Subgroup( d16, [ d16.1^2 ] );
Group([ (1,3,5,7)(2,4,6,8) ])
gap> SetName( c4, "c4" );
gap> RightCosets( d16, c4 );
[ RightCoset(c4,()), RightCoset(c4,(2,8)(3,7)(4,6)), RightCoset(c4,(1,8,7,6,5,
4,3,2)), RightCoset(c4,(1,8)(2,7)(3,6)(4,5)) ]
gap> trans := CommonTransversal( d16, c4 );
[ (), (2,8)(3,7)(4,6), (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8), (1,2)(3,8)(4,7)(5,6) ]
gap> IsCommonTransversal( d16, c4, trans );
true



#### 2.3 Functions for strings

##### 2.3-1 BlankFreeString
 ‣ BlankFreeString( obj ) ( function )

This function has been transferred from package ResClasses.

The result of BlankFreeString( obj ); is a composite of the functions String( obj ) and RemoveCharacters( obj, " " );.


gap> gens := GeneratorsOfGroup( DihedralGroup(12) );
[ f1, f2, f3 ]
gap> String( gens );
"[ f1, f2, f3 ]"
gap> BlankFreeString( gens );
"[f1,f2,f3]"



##### 2.3-2 StringDotSuffix
 ‣ StringDotSuffix( str, suf ) ( operation )

This function has been transferred from package AutoDoc, where it was originally named AUTODOC_GetSuffix.

When StringDotSuffix is given a string containing a "." it return its extension, i.e. the bit after the last ".".


gap> StringDotSuffix( "file.ext" );
"ext"
gap> StringDotSuffix( "file.ext.bak" );
"bak"
gap> StringDotSuffix( "file." );
""
gap> StringDotSuffix( "Hello" );
fail


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