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How to cite GAP

If you have used GAP 4 in the preparation of a paper please cite it as described below (in case you still use GAP 3 please see how to cite GAP 3).

The GAP Group, GAP -- Groups, Algorithms, and Programming, Version 4.12.2; 2022. (

If you have (predominantly) used one or more particular GAP packages, please cite these packages in addition to GAP itself. (Either check the package documentation if it suggests how to cite it, or use a scheme like:

<Author name(s)>, <package name> - a GAP package, <package version>, <package date>, <package web address>

You find the necessary information for each package from the package overview page.)

If you are using BibTeX, you can use the following BibTeX entry for the current GAP version, making sure you have \usepackage{url} (or \usepackage{hyperref} if you want hyperlinks) in the preamble of your LaTeX document):

    key          = "GAP",
    organization = "The GAP~Group",
    title        = "{GAP -- Groups, Algorithms, and Programming,
                    Version 4.12.2}",
    year         = 2022,
    url          = "\url{}",

If you are not using BibTeX, here is the bibliography entry produced by BibTeX (in bibliography style ‘alpha’). You can use this inside the bibliography environment of LaTeX.

  The GAP~Group, \emph{GAP -- Groups, Algorithms, and Programming, 
  Version 4.12.2}; 

When linking to GAP from a web page you can use the link

  <a href="">GAP</a>.

Instructions on citing GAP and its packages may be also found in the CITATION file in the GAP root directory or displayed in GAP using the function Cite.

We also would be indebted if you inform us about your papers citing GAP by sending a short note to