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### 16 Congruences

Congruences in Semigroups can be described in several different ways:

• Generating pairs -- the minimal congruence which contains these pairs

• Rees congruences -- the congruence specified by a given ideal

• Universal congruences -- the unique congruence with only one class

• Linked triples -- only for simple or 0-simple semigroups (see below)

• Kernel and trace -- only for inverse semigroups

The operation SemigroupCongruence (16.2-1) can be used to create any of these, interpreting the arguments in a smart way. The usual way of specifying a congruence will be by giving a set of generating pairs, but a user with an ideal could instead create a Rees congruence or universal congruence.

If a congruence is specified by generating pairs on a simple, 0-simple, or inverse semigroup, then the congruence may be converted automatically to one of the last two items in the above list, to reduce the complexity of any calculations to be performed. The user need not manually specify, or even be aware of, the congruence's linked triple or kernel and trace.

We can also create left congruences and right congruences, using the LeftSemigroupCongruence (16.2-2) and RightSemigroupCongruence (16.2-3) functions.

Please note that congruence objects made in GAP before loading the Semigroups package may not behave correctly after Semigroups is loaded. If Semigroups is loaded at the beginning of the session, or before any congruence work is done, then the objects should behave correctly.

#### 16.1 Semigroup congruence objects

##### 16.1-1 IsSemigroupCongruence
 ‣ IsSemigroupCongruence( obj ) ( property )

A semigroup congruence cong is an equivalence relation on a semigroup S which respects left and right multiplication.

That is, if (a,b) is a pair in cong, and x is an element of S, then (ax,bx) and (xa,xb) are both in cong.

The simplest way of creating a congruence in Semigroups is by a set of generating pairs. See SemigroupCongruence (16.2-1).

gap> S := Semigroup([
>   Transformation([2, 1, 1, 2, 1]),
>   Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 4]),
>   Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3]),
>   Transformation([4, 3, 3, 4, 4])]);;
gap> pair1 := [Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3]),
>              Transformation([1, 2, 1, 2, 1])];;
gap> pair2 := [Transformation([4, 3, 4, 3, 4]),
>              Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3])];;
gap> cong := SemigroupCongruence(S, [pair1, pair2]);
<semigroup congruence over <simple transformation semigroup of
degree 5 with 4 generators> with linked triple (2,4,1)>
gap> IsSemigroupCongruence(cong);
true

##### 16.1-2 IsLeftSemigroupCongruence
 ‣ IsLeftSemigroupCongruence( obj ) ( property )

A left semigroup congruence cong is an equivalence relation on a semigroup S which respects left multiplication.

That is, if (a,b) is a pair in cong, and x is an element of S, then (xa,xb) is also in cong.

The simplest way of creating a left congruence in Semigroups is by a set of generating pairs. See LeftSemigroupCongruence (16.2-2).

gap> S := Semigroup([
>   Transformation([2, 1, 1, 2, 1]),
>   Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 4]),
>   Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3]),
>   Transformation([4, 3, 3, 4, 4])]);;
gap> pair1 := [Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3]),
>              Transformation([1, 2, 1, 2, 1])];;
gap> pair2 := [Transformation([4, 3, 4, 3, 4]),
>              Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3])];;
gap> cong := LeftSemigroupCongruence(S, [pair1, pair2]);
<left semigroup congruence over <transformation semigroup of degree 5
with 4 generators> with 2 generating pairs>
gap> IsLeftSemigroupCongruence(cong);
true

##### 16.1-3 IsRightSemigroupCongruence
 ‣ IsRightSemigroupCongruence( obj ) ( property )

A right semigroup congruence cong is an equivalence relation on a semigroup S which respects right multiplication.

That is, if (a,b) is a pair in cong, and x is an element of S, then (ax,bx) is also in cong.

The simplest way of creating a right congruence in Semigroups is by a set of generating pairs. See RightSemigroupCongruence (16.2-3).

gap> S := Semigroup([
>   Transformation([2, 1, 1, 2, 1]),
>   Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 4]),
>   Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3]),
>   Transformation([4, 3, 3, 4, 4])]);;
gap> pair1 := [Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3]),
>              Transformation([1, 2, 1, 2, 1])];;
gap> pair2 := [Transformation([4, 3, 4, 3, 4]),
>              Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3])];;
gap> RightSemigroupCongruence(S, [pair1, pair2]);
<right semigroup congruence over <transformation semigroup of
degree 5 with 4 generators> with 2 generating pairs>
gap> IsRightSemigroupCongruence(cong);
true

#### 16.2 Creating congruences

##### 16.2-1 SemigroupCongruence
 ‣ SemigroupCongruence( S, pairs ) ( function )

Returns: A semigroup congruence.

This function returns a semigroup congruence over the semigroup S.

If pairs is a list of lists of size 2 with elements from S, then this function will return the semigroup congruence defined by these generating pairs. The individual pairs may instead be given as separate arguments.

gap> S := Semigroup([
>   Transformation([2, 1, 1, 2, 1]),
>   Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 4]),
>   Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3]),
>   Transformation([4, 3, 3, 4, 4])]);;
gap> pair1 := [Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3]),
>              Transformation([1, 2, 1, 2, 1])];;
gap> pair2 := [Transformation([4, 3, 4, 3, 4]),
>              Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3])];;
gap> SemigroupCongruence(S, [pair1, pair2]);
<semigroup congruence over <simple transformation semigroup of
degree 5 with 4 generators> with linked triple (2,4,1)>
gap> SemigroupCongruence(S, pair1, pair2);
<semigroup congruence over <simple transformation semigroup of
degree 5 with 4 generators> with linked triple (2,4,1)>

##### 16.2-2 LeftSemigroupCongruence
 ‣ LeftSemigroupCongruence( S, pairs ) ( function )

Returns: A left semigroup congruence.

This function returns a left semigroup congruence over the semigroup S.

If pairs is a list of lists of size 2 with elements from S, then this function will return the least left semigroup congruence on S which contains these generating pairs. The individual pairs may instead be given as separate arguments.

gap> S := Semigroup([
>   Transformation([2, 1, 1, 2, 1]),
>   Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 4]),
>   Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3]),
>   Transformation([4, 3, 3, 4, 4])]);;
gap> pair1 := [Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3]),
>              Transformation([1, 2, 1, 2, 1])];;
gap> pair2 := [Transformation([4, 3, 4, 3, 4]),
>              Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3])];;
gap> LeftSemigroupCongruence(S, [pair1, pair2]);
<left semigroup congruence over <transformation semigroup of degree 5
with 4 generators> with 2 generating pairs>
gap> LeftSemigroupCongruence(S, pair1, pair2);
<left semigroup congruence over <transformation semigroup of degree 5
with 4 generators> with 2 generating pairs>

##### 16.2-3 RightSemigroupCongruence
 ‣ RightSemigroupCongruence( S, pairs ) ( function )

Returns: A right semigroup congruence.

This function returns a right semigroup congruence over the semigroup S.

If pairs is a list of lists of size 2 with elements from S, then this function will return the least right semigroup congruence on S which contains these generating pairs. The individual pairs may instead be given as separate arguments.

gap> S := Semigroup([
>   Transformation([2, 1, 1, 2, 1]),
>   Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 4]),
>   Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3]),
>   Transformation([4, 3, 3, 4, 4])]);;
gap> pair1 := [Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3]),
>              Transformation([1, 2, 1, 2, 1])];;
gap> pair2 := [Transformation([4, 3, 4, 3, 4]),
>              Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3])];;
gap> RightSemigroupCongruence(S, [pair1, pair2]);
<right semigroup congruence over <transformation semigroup of
degree 5 with 4 generators> with 2 generating pairs>
gap> RightSemigroupCongruence(S, pair1, pair2);
<right semigroup congruence over <transformation semigroup of
degree 5 with 4 generators> with 2 generating pairs>

##### 16.2-4 GeneratingPairsOfSemigroupCongruence
 ‣ GeneratingPairsOfSemigroupCongruence( cong ) ( attribute )
 ‣ GeneratingPairsOfLeftSemigroupCongruence( cong ) ( attribute )
 ‣ GeneratingPairsOfRightSemigroupCongruence( cong ) ( attribute )

Returns: A list of lists.

If cong is a semigroup congruence, then GeneratingPairsOfSemigroupCongruence returns a list of pairs of elements from Range(cong) that generates the congruence; i.e. cong is the least congruence on the semigroup which contains all the pairs in the list.

If cong is a left or right semigroup congruence, then GeneratingPairsOfLeft/RightSemigroupCongruence will instead give a list of pairs which generate it as a left or right congruence. Note that, although a congruence is also a left and right congruence, its generating pairs as a left or right congruence may differ from its generating pairs as a two-sided congruence.

A congruence can be defined using a set of generating pairs: see SemigroupCongruence (16.2-1), LeftSemigroupCongruence (16.2-2), and RightSemigroupCongruence (16.2-3).

gap> S := Semigroup([Transformation([3, 3, 2, 3]),
>                    Transformation([3, 4, 4, 1])]);;
gap> pairs :=
>     [[Transformation([1, 1, 1, 1]), Transformation([2, 2, 2, 3])],
>      [Transformation([2, 2, 3, 2]), Transformation([3, 3, 2, 3])]];;
gap> cong := SemigroupCongruence(S, pairs);;
gap> GeneratingPairsOfSemigroupCongruence(cong);
[ [ Transformation( [ 1, 1, 1, 1 ] ),
Transformation( [ 2, 2, 2, 3 ] ) ],
[ Transformation( [ 2, 2, 3, 2 ] ),
Transformation( [ 3, 3, 2, 3 ] ) ] ]


#### 16.3 Congruence classes

##### 16.3-1 IsCongruenceClass
 ‣ IsCongruenceClass( obj ) ( category )

This category contains any object which is an equivalence class of a semigroup congruence (see IsSemigroupCongruence (16.1-1)). An object will only be in this category if the relation is known to be a semigroup congruence when the congruence class is created.

gap> S := Monoid([
>  Transformation([1, 2, 2]), Transformation([3, 1, 3])]);;
gap> cong := SemigroupCongruence(S, [Transformation([1, 2, 1]),
>                                    Transformation([2, 1, 2])]);;
gap> class := EquivalenceClassOfElement(cong,
>                                       Transformation([3, 1, 1]));
<congruence class of Transformation( [ 3, 1, 1 ] )>
gap> IsCongruenceClass(class);
true

##### 16.3-2 IsLeftCongruenceClass
 ‣ IsLeftCongruenceClass( obj ) ( category )

This category contains any object which is an equivalence class of a left semigroup congruence (see IsLeftSemigroupCongruence (16.1-2)). An object will only be in this category if the relation is known to be a left semigroup congruence when the class is created.

gap> S := Monoid([
>  Transformation([1, 2, 2]), Transformation([3, 1, 3])]);;
gap> pairs := [Transformation([1, 2, 1]),
>              Transformation([2, 1, 2])];;
gap> cong := LeftSemigroupCongruence(S, pairs);;
gap> class := EquivalenceClassOfElement(cong,
>                                       Transformation([3, 1, 1]));
<left congruence class of Transformation( [ 3, 1, 1 ] )>
gap> IsLeftCongruenceClass(class);
true

##### 16.3-3 IsRightCongruenceClass
 ‣ IsRightCongruenceClass( obj ) ( category )

This category contains any object which is an equivalence class of a right semigroup congruence (see IsRightSemigroupCongruence (16.1-3)). An object will only be in this category if the relation is known to be a right semigroup congruence when the class is created.

gap> S := Monoid([
>  Transformation([1, 2, 2]), Transformation([3, 1, 3])]);;
gap> pairs := [Transformation([1, 2, 1]),
>              Transformation([2, 1, 2])];;
gap> cong := RightSemigroupCongruence(S, pairs);;
gap> class := EquivalenceClassOfElement(cong,
>                                       Transformation([3, 1, 1]));
<right congruence class of Transformation( [ 3, 1, 1 ] )>
gap> IsRightCongruenceClass(class);
true

##### 16.3-4 CongruenceClassOfElement
 ‣ CongruenceClassOfElement( cong, elm ) ( operation )
 ‣ LeftCongruenceClassOfElement( cong, elm ) ( operation )
 ‣ RightCongruenceClassOfElement( cong, elm ) ( operation )

Returns: An equivalence class.

These operations act as a synonym of EquivalenceClassOfElement in the case that the argument cong is a congruence, left congruence, or right congruence (respectively) of a semigroup.

See IsLeftSemigroupCongruence (16.1-2), IsRightSemigroupCongruence (16.1-3), and IsSemigroupCongruence (16.1-1).

gap> S := ReesZeroMatrixSemigroup(SymmetricGroup(3),
> [[(), (1, 3, 2)], [(1, 2), 0]]);;
gap> cong := CongruencesOfSemigroup(S);;
gap> elm := ReesZeroMatrixSemigroupElement(S, 1, (1, 3, 2), 1);;
gap> CongruenceClassOfElement(cong, elm);
<congruence class of (1,(1,3,2),1)>


##### 16.3-5 CongruenceClasses
 ‣ CongruenceClasses( cong ) ( operation )
 ‣ LeftCongruenceClasses( cong ) ( operation )
 ‣ RightCongruenceClasses( cong ) ( operation )

Returns: A list of equivalence classes.

These operations act as a synonym of EquivalenceClasses in the case that the argument cong is a congruence, left congruence, or right congruence (respectively) of a semigroup.

See IsLeftSemigroupCongruence (16.1-2), IsRightSemigroupCongruence (16.1-3), and IsSemigroupCongruence (16.1-1).

gap> S := Monoid([
>  Transformation([1, 2, 2]), Transformation([3, 1, 3])]);;
gap> pair := [Transformation([1, 2, 1]), Transformation([2, 1, 2])];;
gap> cong := SemigroupCongruence(S, pair);;
gap> classes := CongruenceClasses(cong);;
gap> Set(classes);
[ <congruence class of Transformation( [ 3, 3, 3 ] )>,
<congruence class of Transformation( [ 2, 1, 2 ] )>,
<congruence class of Transformation( [ 1, 2, 2 ] )>,
<congruence class of IdentityTransformation>,
<congruence class of Transformation( [ 3, 1, 3 ] )>,
<congruence class of Transformation( [ 3, 1, 1 ] )> ]


##### 16.3-6 NonTrivialEquivalenceClasses
 ‣ NonTrivialEquivalenceClasses( eq ) ( attribute )

Returns: A list of equivalence classes.

If eq is an equivalence relation, then this attribute returns a list of all equivalence classes of eq which contain more than one element.

gap> S := Monoid([Transformation([1, 2, 2]),
>                 Transformation([3, 1, 3])]);;
gap> cong := SemigroupCongruence(S, [Transformation([1, 2, 1]),
>                                    Transformation([2, 1, 2])]);;
gap> classes := NonTrivialEquivalenceClasses(cong);;
gap> Set(classes);
[ <congruence class of Transformation( [ 3, 3, 3 ] )>,
<congruence class of Transformation( [ 2, 1, 2 ] )>,
<congruence class of Transformation( [ 1, 2, 2 ] )>,
<congruence class of Transformation( [ 3, 1, 3 ] )>,
<congruence class of Transformation( [ 3, 1, 1 ] )> ]

##### 16.3-7 NonTrivialCongruenceClasses
 ‣ NonTrivialCongruenceClasses( cong ) ( operation )
 ‣ NonTrivialLeftCongruenceClasses( cong ) ( operation )
 ‣ NonTrivialRightCongruenceClasses( cong ) ( operation )

Returns: A list of equivalence classes.

These operations act as a synonym of NonTrivialEquivalenceClasses in the case that the argument cong is a congruence, left congruence, or right congruence (respectively) of a semigroup.

See IsLeftSemigroupCongruence (16.1-2), IsRightSemigroupCongruence (16.1-3), and IsSemigroupCongruence (16.1-1).

gap> S := Monoid([
>  Transformation([1, 2, 2]), Transformation([3, 1, 3])]);;
gap> cong := RightSemigroupCongruence(S, [Transformation([1, 2, 1]),
>                                         Transformation([2, 1, 2])]);;
gap> classes := NonTrivialRightCongruenceClasses(cong);;
gap> Set(classes);
[ <right congruence class of Transformation( [ 2, 1, 2 ] )>,
<right congruence class of Transformation( [ 3, 1, 3 ] )> ]


##### 16.3-8 NrEquivalenceClasses
 ‣ NrEquivalenceClasses( eq ) ( attribute )

Returns: A positive integer.

If eq is an equivalence relation, then this attribute describes the number of equivalence classes it has.

gap> S := ReesZeroMatrixSemigroup(SymmetricGroup(3),
>                                 [[(), (1, 3, 2)], [(1, 2), 0]]);;
gap> cong := CongruencesOfSemigroup(S);;
gap> NrEquivalenceClasses(cong);
9

##### 16.3-9 NrCongruenceClasses
 ‣ NrCongruenceClasses( cong ) ( operation )
 ‣ NrLeftCongruenceClasses( cong ) ( operation )
 ‣ NrRightCongruenceClasses( cong ) ( operation )

Returns: A list of equivalence classes.

These operations act as a synonym of NrEquivalenceClasses in the case that the argument cong is a congruence, left congruence, or right congruence (respectively) of a semigroup.

See IsLeftSemigroupCongruence (16.1-2), IsRightSemigroupCongruence (16.1-3), and IsSemigroupCongruence (16.1-1).

gap> S := Monoid([
>  Transformation([1, 2, 2]), Transformation([3, 1, 3])]);;
gap> pair := [Transformation([1, 2, 1]), Transformation([2, 1, 2])];;
gap> cong := SemigroupCongruence(S, pair);;
gap> NrCongruenceClasses(cong);
6
gap> cong := RightSemigroupCongruence(S, pair);;
gap> NrRightCongruenceClasses(cong);
10


##### 16.3-10 EquivalenceRelationLookup
 ‣ EquivalenceRelationLookup( cong ) ( attribute )

Returns: A list.

This attribute describes the (left, right or two-sided) semigroup congruence cong as a list of positive integers with length the size of the finite semigroup over which cong is defined.

Each position in the list corresponds to an element of the semigroup (in a consistent canonical order) and the integer at that position is a unique identifier for that element's congruence class under cong. Two elements of the semigroup on which the congruence is defined are related in the congruence if and only if they have the same number at their respective positions in the lookup.

Note that the order in which numbers appear in the list is non-deterministic, and two congruence objects which describe the same equivalence relation might therefore have different lookups. Note also that the maximum value of the list may not be the number of classes of cong, and that any integer might not be included. However, see EquivalenceRelationCanonicalLookup (16.3-11).

See also EquivalenceRelationPartition (Reference: EquivalenceRelationPartition).

gap> S := Monoid([
>  Transformation([1, 2, 2]), Transformation([3, 1, 3])]);;
gap> cong := SemigroupCongruence(S,
> [Transformation([1, 2, 1]), Transformation([2, 1, 2])]);;
gap> lookup := EquivalenceRelationLookup(cong);;
gap> lookup = lookup;
true
gap> lookup = lookup;
false

##### 16.3-11 EquivalenceRelationCanonicalLookup
 ‣ EquivalenceRelationCanonicalLookup( cong ) ( attribute )

Returns: A list.

This attribute describes the semigroup congruence cong as a list of positive integers with length the size of the finite semigroup over which cong is defined.

Each position in the list corresponds to an element of the semigroup (in a consistent canonical order) and the integer at that position is a unique identifier for that element's congruence class under cong. The value of EquivalenceRelationCanonicalLookup has the property that the first appearance of the value i is strictly later than the first appearance of i-1, and that all entries in the list will be from the range [1 .. NrEquivalenceClasses(cong)]. As such, two congruences on a given semigroup are equal if and only if their canonical lookups are equal.

Two elements of the semigroup on which the congruence is defined are related in the congruence if and only if they have the same number at their respective positions in the lookup.

See also EquivalenceRelationLookup (16.3-10) and EquivalenceRelationPartition (Reference: EquivalenceRelationPartition).

gap> S := Monoid([
>  Transformation([1, 2, 2]), Transformation([3, 1, 3])]);;
gap> cong := SemigroupCongruence(S,
> [Transformation([1, 2, 1]), Transformation([2, 1, 2])]);;
gap> EquivalenceRelationCanonicalLookup(cong);
[ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 2, 3, 6, 4, 5, 6 ]

##### 16.3-12 EquivalenceRelationCanonicalPartition
 ‣ EquivalenceRelationCanonicalPartition( cong ) ( attribute )

Returns: A list of lists.

This attribute returns a list of lists of elements of the underlying set of the semigroup congruence cong. These lists are precisely the nontrivial equivalence classes of cong. The order in which the classes appear is deterministic, and the order of the elements inside each class is also deterministic. Hence, two congruence objects have the same EquivalenceRelationCanonicalPartition if and only if they describe the same relation.

See also EquivalenceRelationPartition (Reference: EquivalenceRelationPartition), a similar attribute which does not have canonical ordering, but which is likely to be faster.

gap> S := Semigroup(Transformation([1, 4, 3, 3]),
>                   Transformation([2, 4, 3, 3]));;
gap> cong := SemigroupCongruence(S, [Transformation([1, 4, 3, 3]),
>                                    Transformation([1, 3, 3, 3])]);;
gap> EquivalenceRelationCanonicalPartition(cong);
[ [ Transformation( [ 1, 3, 3, 3 ] ),
Transformation( [ 1, 4, 3, 3 ] ) ],
[ Transformation( [ 3, 3, 3, 3 ] ),
Transformation( [ 4, 3, 3, 3 ] ) ] ]


##### 16.3-13 OnLeftCongruenceClasses
 ‣ OnLeftCongruenceClasses( class, elm ) ( operation )

Returns: A left congruence class.

If class is an equivalence class of the left semigroup congruence cong on the semigroup S, and elm is an element of S, then this operation returns the equivalence class of cong containing the element elm * x, where x is any element of class. The result is well-defined by the definition of a left congruence.

See IsLeftSemigroupCongruence (16.1-2) and IsLeftCongruenceClass (16.3-2).

gap> S := Semigroup([
>   Transformation([2, 1, 1, 2, 1]),
>   Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 4]),
>   Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3]),
>   Transformation([4, 3, 3, 4, 4])]);;
gap> pair1 := [Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3]),
>              Transformation([1, 2, 1, 2, 1])];;
gap> pair2 := [Transformation([4, 3, 4, 3, 4]),
>              Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3])];;
gap> cong := LeftSemigroupCongruence(S, [pair1, pair2]);
<left semigroup congruence over <transformation semigroup of degree 5
with 4 generators> with 2 generating pairs>
gap> x := Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3]);;
gap> class := LeftCongruenceClassOfElement(cong, x);
<left congruence class of Transformation( [ 3, 4, 3, 4, 3 ] )>
gap> elm := Transformation([1, 2, 2, 1, 2]);;
gap> OnLeftCongruenceClasses(class, elm);
<left congruence class of Transformation( [ 3, 4, 4, 3, 4 ] )>


##### 16.3-14 OnRightCongruenceClasses
 ‣ OnRightCongruenceClasses( class, elm ) ( operation )

Returns: A right congruence class.

If class is an equivalence class of the right semigroup congruence cong on the semigroup S, and elm is an element of S, then this operation returns the equivalence class of cong containing the element x * elm, where x is any element of class. The result is well-defined by the definition of a right congruence.

See IsRightSemigroupCongruence (16.1-3) and IsRightCongruenceClass (16.3-3).

gap> S := Semigroup([
>   Transformation([2, 1, 1, 2, 1]),
>   Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 4]),
>   Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3]),
>   Transformation([4, 3, 3, 4, 4])]);;
gap> pair1 := [Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3]),
>              Transformation([1, 2, 1, 2, 1])];;
gap> pair2 := [Transformation([4, 3, 4, 3, 4]),
>              Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3])];;
gap> cong := RightSemigroupCongruence(S, [pair1, pair2]);
<right semigroup congruence over <transformation semigroup of
degree 5 with 4 generators> with 2 generating pairs>
gap> x := Transformation([3, 4, 3, 4, 3]);;
gap> class := RightCongruenceClassOfElement(cong, x);
<right congruence class of Transformation( [ 3, 4, 3, 4, 3 ] )>
gap> elm := Transformation([1, 2, 2, 1, 2]);;
gap> OnRightCongruenceClasses(class, elm);
<right congruence class of Transformation( [ 2, 1, 2, 1, 2 ] )>


#### 16.4 Finding the congruences of a semigroup

##### 16.4-1 CongruencesOfSemigroup
 ‣ CongruencesOfSemigroup( S ) ( attribute )
 ‣ LeftCongruencesOfSemigroup( S ) ( attribute )
 ‣ RightCongruencesOfSemigroup( S ) ( attribute )
 ‣ CongruencesOfSemigroup( S, restriction ) ( operation )
 ‣ LeftCongruencesOfSemigroup( S, restriction ) ( operation )
 ‣ RightCongruencesOfSemigroup( S, restriction ) ( operation )

Returns: The congruences of a semigroup.

This attribute gives a list of the left, right, or 2-sided congruences of the semigroup S.

If restriction is specified and is a collection of elements from S, then the result will only include congruences generated by pairs of elements from restriction. Otherwise, all congruences will be calculated.

See also LatticeOfCongruences (16.4-5).

gap> S := ReesZeroMatrixSemigroup(SymmetricGroup(3),
>                                 [[(), (1, 3, 2)], [(1, 2), 0]]);;
gap> congs := CongruencesOfSemigroup(S);;
gap> Length(congs);
4
gap> Set(congs, NrCongruenceClasses);
[ 1, 5, 9, 25 ]
gap> pos := Position(congs, UniversalSemigroupCongruence(S));;
gap> congs[pos];
<universal semigroup congruence over
<Rees 0-matrix semigroup 2x2 over Sym( [ 1 .. 3 ] )>>

##### 16.4-2 MinimalCongruencesOfSemigroup
 ‣ MinimalCongruencesOfSemigroup( S ) ( attribute )
 ‣ MinimalLeftCongruencesOfSemigroup( S ) ( attribute )
 ‣ MinimalRightCongruencesOfSemigroup( S ) ( attribute )
 ‣ MinimalCongruencesOfSemigroup( S, restriction ) ( operation )
 ‣ MinimalLeftCongruencesOfSemigroup( S, restriction ) ( operation )
 ‣ MinimalRightCongruencesOfSemigroup( S, restriction ) ( operation )

Returns: The congruences of a semigroup.

If S is a semigroup, then the attribute MinimalCongruencesOfSemigroup gives a list of all the congruences on S which are minimal. A congruence is minimal iff it is non-trivial and contains no other congruences as subrelations (apart from the trivial congruence).

MinimalLeftCongruencesOfSemigroup and MinimalRightCongruencesOfSemigroup do the same thing, but for left congruences and right congruences respectively. Note that any congruence is also a left congruence, but that a minimal congruence may not be a minimal left congruence.

If restriction is specified and is a collection of elements from S, then the result will only include congruences generated by pairs of elements from restriction. Otherwise, all congruences will be calculated.

See also CongruencesOfSemigroup (16.4-1) and PrincipalCongruencesOfSemigroup (16.4-3).

gap> S := Semigroup(Transformation([1, 3, 2]),
>                   Transformation([3, 1, 3]));;
gap> min := MinimalCongruencesOfSemigroup(S);
[ <semigroup congruence over <transformation semigroup of size 13,
degree 3 with 2 generators> with 1 generating pairs> ]
gap> minl := MinimalLeftCongruencesOfSemigroup(S);
[ <left semigroup congruence over <transformation semigroup
of size 13, degree 3 with 2 generators> with 1 generating pairs>,
<left semigroup congruence over <transformation semigroup
of size 13, degree 3 with 2 generators> with 1 generating pairs>,
<left semigroup congruence over <transformation semigroup
of size 13, degree 3 with 2 generators> with 1 generating pairs>
]


##### 16.4-3 PrincipalCongruencesOfSemigroup
 ‣ PrincipalCongruencesOfSemigroup( S ) ( attribute )
 ‣ PrincipalLeftCongruencesOfSemigroup( S ) ( attribute )
 ‣ PrincipalRightCongruencesOfSemigroup( S ) ( attribute )
 ‣ PrincipalCongruencesOfSemigroup( S, restriction ) ( operation )
 ‣ PrincipalLeftCongruencesOfSemigroup( S, restriction ) ( operation )
 ‣ PrincipalRightCongruencesOfSemigroup( S, restriction ) ( operation )

Returns: A list.

If S is a semigroup, then the attribute PrincipalCongruencesOfSemigroup gives a list of all the congruences on S which are principal. A congruence is principal if and only if it is non-trivial and can be defined by a single generating pair.

PrincipalLeftCongruencesOfSemigroup and PrincipalRightCongruencesOfSemigroup do the same thing, but for left congruences and right congruences respectively. Note that any congruence is a left congruence and a right congruence, but that a principal congruence may not be a principal left congruence or a principal right congruence.

If restriction is specified and is a collection of elements from S, then the result will only include congruences generated by pairs of elements from restriction. Otherwise, all congruences will be calculated.

See also CongruencesOfSemigroup (16.4-1) and MinimalCongruencesOfSemigroup (16.4-2).

gap> S := Semigroup(Transformation([1, 3, 2]),
>                   Transformation([3, 1, 3]));;
gap> congs := PrincipalCongruencesOfSemigroup(S);
[ <semigroup congruence over <transformation semigroup of size 13,
degree 3 with 2 generators> with 1 generating pairs>,
<semigroup congruence over <transformation semigroup of size 13,
degree 3 with 2 generators> with 1 generating pairs>,
<semigroup congruence over <transformation semigroup of size 13,
degree 3 with 2 generators> with 1 generating pairs>,
<semigroup congruence over <transformation semigroup of size 13,
degree 3 with 2 generators> with 1 generating pairs>,
<semigroup congruence over <transformation semigroup of size 13,
degree 3 with 2 generators> with 1 generating pairs> ]


##### 16.4-4 IsCongruencePoset
 ‣ IsCongruencePoset( poset ) ( category )

Returns: true or false.

This category contains all congruence posets. A congruence poset is a partially ordered set of congruences over a specific semigroup, where the ordering is defined by containment according to IsSubrelation (16.5-1): given two congruences cong1 and cong2, we say that cong1 < cong2 if and only if cong1 is a subrelation (a refinement) of cong2. The congruences in a congruence poset can be left, right, or two-sided.

A congruence poset is displayed as a list of lists, which describes the partial order of its congruences: the integer j appears in list i if and only if the congruence numbered j is a subrelation of the congruence numbered i. The list of congruences can be obtained using CongruencesOfPoset (16.4-7). Congruence posets can be created using PosetOfCongruences (16.4-9), JoinSemilatticeOfCongruences (16.4-10), and LatticeOfCongruences (16.4-5).

gap> S := SymmetricInverseMonoid(2);;
gap> poset := LatticeOfCongruences(S);
[ [  ], [ 1 ], [ 1, 2, 4 ], [ 1, 2 ] ]
gap> IsCongruencePoset(poset);
true
gap> poset;
[ 1, 2, 4 ]
gap> T := FullTransformationMonoid(3);;
gap> congs := PrincipalCongruencesOfSemigroup(T);;
gap> poset := JoinSemilatticeOfCongruences(congs,
>                                          JoinSemigroupCongruences);
[ [ 4, 6 ], [ 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 ], [ 1, 4, 5, 6 ], [ 6 ], [ 1, 4, 6 ],
[  ] ]
gap> IsCongruencePoset(poset);
true
gap> Length(poset);
6


##### 16.4-5 LatticeOfCongruences
 ‣ LatticeOfCongruences( S ) ( attribute )
 ‣ LatticeOfLeftCongruences( S ) ( attribute )
 ‣ LatticeOfRightCongruences( S ) ( attribute )
 ‣ LatticeOfCongruences( S, restriction ) ( operation )
 ‣ LatticeOfLeftCongruences( S, restriction ) ( operation )
 ‣ LatticeOfRightCongruences( S, restriction ) ( operation )

Returns: A list of lists.

If S is a semigroup, then LatticeOfCongruences gives a list of lists showing how the congruences of S are contained in each other. The congruence numbered i is a subcongruence of the congruence numbered j if and only if i is in the jth list. The numbering is according to the order in CongruencesOfPoset (16.4-7).

LatticeOfLeftCongruences and LatticeOfRightCongruences do the same thing for left and right congruences respectively.

If restriction is specified and is a collection of elements from S, then the result will only include congruences generated by pairs of elements from restriction. Otherwise, all congruences will be calculated.

See CongruencesOfSemigroup (16.4-1).

gap> S := OrderEndomorphisms(2);;
gap> LatticeOfCongruences(S);
[ [  ], [ 1, 3 ], [ 1 ] ]
gap> LatticeOfLeftCongruences(S);
[ [  ], [ 1, 3 ], [ 1 ] ]
gap> LatticeOfRightCongruences(S);
[ [  ], [ 1 ], [ 1 ], [ 1 ], [ 1, 2, 3, 4 ] ]
gap> S := FullTransformationMonoid(4);;
gap> restriction := [Transformation([1, 1, 1, 1]),
>                    Transformation([1, 1, 1, 2]),
>                    Transformation([1, 1, 1, 3])];;
gap> latt := LatticeOfCongruences(S, restriction);
[ [  ], [ 1 ] ]


##### 16.4-6 PosetOfPrincipalCongruences
 ‣ PosetOfPrincipalCongruences( S ) ( attribute )
 ‣ PosetOfPrincipalLeftCongruences( S ) ( attribute )
 ‣ PosetOfPrincipalRightCongruences( S ) ( attribute )
 ‣ PosetOfPrincipalCongruences( S, restriction ) ( operation )
 ‣ PosetOfPrincipalLeftCongruences( S, restriction ) ( operation )
 ‣ PosetOfPrincipalRightCongruences( S, restriction ) ( operation )

Returns: A congruence poset.

If S is a semigroup, then PosetOfPrincipalCongruences returns a congruence poset object which contains all the principal congruences of S, ordered by containment according to IsSubrelation (16.5-1). A congruence is principal if it can be defined by a single generating pair. PosetOfPrincipalLeftCongruences and PosetOfPrincipalRightCongruences do the same thing for left and right congruences respectively.

If restriction is specified and is a collection of elements from S, then the result will only include principal congruences generated by pairs of elements from restriction. Otherwise, all principal congruences will be calculated.

See also LatticeOfCongruences (16.4-5) and PrincipalCongruencesOfSemigroup (16.4-3).

gap> S := Semigroup([Transformation([1, 3, 1]),
>                    Transformation([2, 3, 3])]);;
gap> PosetOfPrincipalLeftCongruences(S);
[ [ 8, 11 ], [  ], [ 1, 2, 8, 11, 12 ], [ 2, 7, 10, 11, 12 ], [ 2 ],
[ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 ], [ 10, 12 ], [ 11 ],
[ 2, 11, 12 ], [ 12 ], [  ], [  ] ]
gap> PosetOfPrincipalCongruences(S);
[ [ 2, 3 ], [  ], [ 2 ] ]
gap> restriction := [Transformation([3, 2, 3]),
>                    Transformation([3, 1, 3]),
>                    Transformation([2, 2, 2])];;
gap> poset := PosetOfPrincipalRightCongruences(S, restriction);
[ [ 2, 3 ], [  ], [  ] ]


##### 16.4-7 CongruencesOfPoset
 ‣ CongruencesOfPoset( poset ) ( attribute )

Returns: A list.

If poset is a congruence poset object, then this attribute returns a list of all the congruence objects in the poset (these may be left, right, or two-sided). The order of this list corresponds to the order of the entries in the poset.

See also LatticeOfCongruences (16.4-5) and CongruencesOfSemigroup (16.4-1).

gap> S := OrderEndomorphisms(2);;
gap> latt := LatticeOfRightCongruences(S);
[ [  ], [ 1 ], [ 1 ], [ 1 ], [ 1, 2, 3, 4 ] ]
gap> CongruencesOfPoset(latt);
[ <right semigroup congruence over <regular transformation monoid
of size 3, degree 2 with 2 generators> with 0 generating pairs>,
<right semigroup congruence over <regular transformation monoid
of size 3, degree 2 with 2 generators> with 1 generating pairs>,
<right semigroup congruence over <regular transformation monoid
of size 3, degree 2 with 2 generators> with 1 generating pairs>,
<right semigroup congruence over <regular transformation monoid
of size 3, degree 2 with 2 generators> with 1 generating pairs>,
<right semigroup congruence over <regular transformation monoid
of size 3, degree 2 with 2 generators> with 2 generating pairs> ]


##### 16.4-8 UnderlyingSemigroupOfCongruencePoset
 ‣ UnderlyingSemigroupOfCongruencePoset( poset ) ( attribute )

Returns: A semigroup.

If poset is a congruence poset object, then this attribute returns the semigroup on which all its congruences are defined.

gap> S := OrderEndomorphisms(2);
<regular transformation monoid of degree 2 with 2 generators>
gap> latt := LatticeOfRightCongruences(S);
[ [  ], [ 1 ], [ 1 ], [ 1 ], [ 1, 2, 3, 4 ] ]
gap> UnderlyingSemigroupOfCongruencePoset(latt) = S;
true


##### 16.4-9 PosetOfCongruences
 ‣ PosetOfCongruences( coll ) ( operation )

Returns: A congruence poset.

If coll is a list or collection of semigroup congruences (which may be left, right, or two-sided) then this operation returns the congruence poset formed by these congruences partially ordered by containment.

This operation does not create any new congruences or take any joins. However, see JoinSemilatticeOfCongruences (16.4-10). See also IsCongruencePoset (16.4-4) and LatticeOfCongruences (16.4-5).

gap> S := OrderEndomorphisms(2);;
gap> pair1 := [Transformation([1, 1]), IdentityTransformation];;
gap> pair2 := [IdentityTransformation, Transformation([2, 2])];;
gap> coll := [RightSemigroupCongruence(S, pair1),
>             RightSemigroupCongruence(S, pair2),
>             RightSemigroupCongruence(S, [])];;
gap> PosetOfCongruences(coll);
[ [ 3 ], [ 3 ], [  ] ]


##### 16.4-10 JoinSemilatticeOfCongruences
 ‣ JoinSemilatticeOfCongruences( coll, join_func ) ( operation )
 ‣ JoinSemilatticeOfCongruences( poset, join_func ) ( operation )

Returns: A congruence poset.

If coll is a list or collection of semigroup congruences (which may be left, right, or two-sided) and join_func is a function for taking the join of two of the congruences (such as JoinSemigroupCongruences (16.5-4)) then this operation returns the congruence poset formed by these congruences partially ordered by containment, along with all their joins.

Alternatively, a congruence poset poset can be specified; in this case, the congruences contained in poset will be used in place of coll, and information already known about their containments will be used.

See also IsCongruencePoset (16.4-4) and PosetOfCongruences (16.4-9).

gap> S := SymmetricInverseMonoid(2);;
gap> pair1 := [PartialPerm(, ), PartialPerm(, )];;
gap> pair2 := [PartialPerm(, ), PartialPerm([1, 2], [1, 2])];;
gap> pair3 := [PartialPerm([1, 2], [1, 2]),
>              PartialPerm([1, 2], [2, 1])];;
gap> coll := [RightSemigroupCongruence(S, pair1),
>             RightSemigroupCongruence(S, pair2),
>             RightSemigroupCongruence(S, pair3)];;
gap> JoinSemilatticeOfCongruences(coll, JoinRightSemigroupCongruences);
[ [  ], [  ], [ 1 ], [ 1, 2, 3 ] ]


##### 16.4-11 MinimalCongruences
 ‣ MinimalCongruences( coll ) ( attribute )
 ‣ MinimalCongruences( poset ) ( attribute )

Returns: A list.

If coll is a list or collection of semigroup congruences (which may be left, right, or two-sided) then this attribute returns a list of all the congruences from coll which do not contain any of the others as subrelations.

Alternatively, a congruence poset poset can be specified; in this case, the congruences contained in poset will be used in place of coll, and information already known about their containments will be used.

This function should not be confused with MinimalCongruencesOfSemigroup (16.4-2). See also IsCongruencePoset (16.4-4) and PosetOfCongruences (16.4-9).

gap> S := SymmetricInverseMonoid(2);;
gap> pair1 := [PartialPerm(, ), PartialPerm(, )];;
gap> pair2 := [PartialPerm(, ), PartialPerm([1, 2], [1, 2])];;
gap> pair3 := [PartialPerm([1, 2], [1, 2]),
>              PartialPerm([1, 2], [2, 1])];;
gap> coll := [RightSemigroupCongruence(S, pair1),
>             RightSemigroupCongruence(S, pair2),
>             RightSemigroupCongruence(S, pair3)];;
gap> MinimalCongruences(coll);
[ <right semigroup congruence over <symmetric inverse monoid of degree\
2> with 1 generating pairs>,
<right semigroup congruence over <symmetric inverse monoid of degree\
2> with 1 generating pairs> ]
gap> poset := LatticeOfCongruences(S);
[ [  ], [ 1 ], [ 1, 2, 4 ], [ 1, 2 ] ]
gap> MinimalCongruences(poset);
[ <semigroup congruence over <symmetric inverse monoid of degree 2> wi\
th 0 generating pairs> ]


#### 16.5 Comparing congruences

##### 16.5-1 IsSubrelation
 ‣ IsSubrelation( cong1, cong2 ) ( operation )

Returns: True or false.

If cong1 and cong2 are congruences over the same semigroup, then this operation returns whether cong2 is a refinement of cong1, i.e. whether every pair in cong2 is contained in cong1.

gap> S := ReesZeroMatrixSemigroup(SymmetricGroup(3),
> [[(), (1, 3, 2)], [(1, 2), 0]]);;
gap> cong1 := SemigroupCongruence(S, [RMSElement(S, 1, (1, 2, 3), 1),
>                                     RMSElement(S, 1, (), 1)]);;
gap> cong2 := SemigroupCongruence(S, []);;
gap> IsSubrelation(cong1, cong2);
true
gap> IsSubrelation(cong2, cong1);
false

##### 16.5-2 IsSuperrelation
 ‣ IsSuperrelation( cong1, cong2 ) ( operation )

Returns: True or false.

If cong1 and cong2 are congruences over the same semigroup, then this operation returns whether cong1 is a refinement of cong2, i.e. whether every pair in cong1 is contained in cong2.

See IsSubrelation (16.5-1).

gap> S := ReesZeroMatrixSemigroup(SymmetricGroup(3),
> [[(), (1, 3, 2)], [(1, 2), 0]]);;
gap> cong1 := SemigroupCongruence(S, [RMSElement(S, 1, (1, 2, 3), 1),
>                                     RMSElement(S, 1, (), 1)]);;
gap> cong2 := SemigroupCongruence(S, []);;
gap> IsSuperrelation(cong1, cong2);
false
gap> IsSuperrelation(cong2, cong1);
true

##### 16.5-3 MeetSemigroupCongruences
 ‣ MeetSemigroupCongruences( c1, c2 ) ( operation )

Returns: A semigroup congruence.

This operation returns the meet of the two semigroup congruences c1 and c2 -- that is, the largest semigroup congruence contained in both c1 and c2.

gap> S := ReesZeroMatrixSemigroup(SymmetricGroup(3),
> [[(), (1, 3, 2)], [(1, 2), 0]]);;
gap> cong1 := SemigroupCongruence(S, [RMSElement(S, 1, (1, 2, 3), 1),
>                                     RMSElement(S, 1, (), 1)]);;
gap> cong2 := SemigroupCongruence(S, []);;
gap> MeetSemigroupCongruences(cong1, cong2);
<semigroup congruence over <Rees 0-matrix semigroup 2x2 over
Sym( [ 1 .. 3 ] )> with linked triple (1,2,2)>

##### 16.5-4 JoinSemigroupCongruences
 ‣ JoinSemigroupCongruences( c1, c2 ) ( operation )
 ‣ JoinLeftSemigroupCongruences( c1, c2 ) ( operation )
 ‣ JoinRightSemigroupCongruences( c1, c2 ) ( operation )

Returns: A semigroup congruence.

This operation returns the join of the two semigroup congruences c1 and c2 -- that is, the smallest semigroup congruence containing all the relations in both c1 and c2.

gap> S := ReesZeroMatrixSemigroup(SymmetricGroup(3),
> [[(), (1, 3, 2)], [(1, 2), 0]]);;
gap> cong1 := SemigroupCongruence(S, [RMSElement(S, 1, (1, 2, 3), 1),
>                                     RMSElement(S, 1, (), 1)]);;
gap> cong2 := SemigroupCongruence(S, []);;
gap> JoinSemigroupCongruences(cong1, cong2);
<semigroup congruence over <Rees 0-matrix semigroup 2x2 over
Sym( [ 1 .. 3 ] )> with linked triple (3,2,2)>

#### 16.6 Congruences on Rees matrix semigroups

This section describes the implementation of congruences of simple and 0-simple semigroups in the Semigroups package, and the functions associated with them. This code and this part of the manual were written by Michael Torpey. Most of the theorems used in this chapter are from Section 3.5 of [How95].

By the Rees Theorem, any 0-simple semigroup S is isomorphic to a Rees 0-matrix semigroup (see Reference: Rees Matrix Semigroups) over a group, with a regular sandwich matrix. That is,

S \cong \mathcal{M} ^ 0[G; I, \Lambda; P],

where G is a group, Λ and I are non-empty sets, and P is regular in the sense that it has no rows or columns consisting solely of zeroes.

The congruences of a Rees 0-matrix semigroup are in 1-1 correspondence with the linked triple, which is a triple of the form [N, S, T] where:

• N is a normal subgroup of the underlying group G,

• S is an equivalence relation on the columns of P,

• T is an equivalence relation on the rows of P,

satisfying the following conditions:

• a pair of S-related columns must contain zeroes in precisely the same rows,

• a pair of T-related rows must contain zeroes in precisely the same columns,

• if i and j are S-related, k and l are T-related and the matrix entries p_k, i, p_k, j, p_l, i, p_l, j ≠ 0, then q_k, l, i, j ∈ N, where

q_{k, l, i, j} = p_{k, i} p_{l, i} ^ {-1} p_{l, j} p_{k, j} ^ {-1}.

By Theorem 3.5.9 in [How95], for any finite 0-simple Rees 0-matrix semigroup, there is a bijection between its non-universal congruences and its linked triples. In this way, we can internally represent any congruence of such a semigroup by storing its associated linked triple instead of a set of generating pairs, and thus perform many calculations on it more efficiently.

If a congruence is defined by a linked triple (N, S, T), then a single class of that congruence can be defined by a triple (Nx, i / S, k / S), where Nx is a right coset of N, i / S is the equivalence class of i in S, and k / S is the equivalence class of k in T. Thus we can internally represent any class of such a congruence as a triple simply consisting of a right coset and two positive integers.

An analogous condition exists for finite simple Rees matrix semigroups without zero.

##### 16.6-1 IsRMSCongruenceByLinkedTriple
 ‣ IsRMSCongruenceByLinkedTriple( obj ) ( category )
 ‣ IsRZMSCongruenceByLinkedTriple( obj ) ( category )

Returns: true or false.

These categories describe a type of semigroup congruence over a Rees matrix or 0-matrix semigroup. Externally, an object of this type may be used in the same way as any other object in the category IsSemigroupCongruence (Reference: IsSemigroupCongruence) but it is represented internally by its linked triple, and certain functions may take advantage of this information to reduce computation times.

An object of this type may be constructed with RMSCongruenceByLinkedTriple or RZMSCongruenceByLinkedTriple, or this representation may be selected automatically by SemigroupCongruence (16.2-1).

gap> G := Group([(1, 4, 5), (1, 5, 3, 4)]);;
gap> mat := [[0, 0, (1, 4, 5), 0, 0, (1, 4, 3, 5)],
>            [0, (), 0, 0, (3, 5), 0],
>            [(), 0, 0, (3, 5), 0, 0]];;
gap> S := ReesZeroMatrixSemigroup(G, mat);;
gap> N := Group([(1, 4)(3, 5), (1, 5)(3, 4)]);;
gap> colBlocks := [, [2, 5], [3, 6], ];;
gap> rowBlocks := [, , ];;
gap> cong := RZMSCongruenceByLinkedTriple(S, N, colBlocks, rowBlocks);;
gap> IsRZMSCongruenceByLinkedTriple(cong);
true

##### 16.6-2 RMSCongruenceByLinkedTriple
 ‣ RMSCongruenceByLinkedTriple( S, N, colBlocks, rowBlocks ) ( function )
 ‣ RZMSCongruenceByLinkedTriple( S, N, colBlocks, rowBlocks ) ( function )

Returns: A Rees matrix or 0-matrix semigroup congruence by linked triple.

This function returns a semigroup congruence over the Rees matrix or 0-matrix semigroup S corresponding to the linked triple (N, colBlocks, rowBlocks). The argument N should be a normal subgroup of the underlying semigroup of S; colBlocks should be a partition of the columns of the matrix of S; and rowBlocks should be a partition of the rows of the matrix of S. For example, if the matrix has 5 rows, then a possibility for rowBlocks might be [[1, 3], [2, 5], ].

If the arguments describe a valid linked triple on S, then an object in the category IsRZMSCongruenceByLinkedTriple is returned. This object can be used like any other semigroup congruence in GAP.

If the arguments describe a triple which is not linked in the sense described above, then this function returns an error.

gap> G := Group([(1, 4, 5), (1, 5, 3, 4)]);;
gap> mat := [[0, 0, (1, 4, 5), 0, 0, (1, 4, 3, 5)],
>            [0, (), 0, 0, (3, 5), 0],
>            [(), 0, 0, (3, 5), 0, 0]];;
gap> S := ReesZeroMatrixSemigroup(G, mat);;
gap> N := Group([(1, 4)(3, 5), (1, 5)(3, 4)]);;
gap> colBlocks := [, [2, 5], [3, 6], ];;
gap> rowBlocks := [, , ];;
gap> cong := RZMSCongruenceByLinkedTriple(S, N, colBlocks, rowBlocks);
<semigroup congruence over <Rees 0-matrix semigroup 6x3 over
Group([ (1,4,5), (1,5,3,4) ])> with linked triple (2^2,4,3)>

##### 16.6-3 IsRMSCongruenceClassByLinkedTriple
 ‣ IsRMSCongruenceClassByLinkedTriple( obj ) ( category )
 ‣ IsRZMSCongruenceClassByLinkedTriple( obj ) ( category )

Returns: true or false.

These categories contain the congruence classes of a semigroup congruence of the categories IsRMSCongruenceByLinkedTriple (16.6-1) and IsRZMSCongruenceByLinkedTriple (16.6-1) respectively.

An object of one of these types may be used in the same way as any other object in the category IsCongruenceClass (16.3-1), but the class is represented internally by information related to the congruence's linked triple, and certain functions may take advantage of this information to reduce computation times.

gap> G := Group([(1, 4, 5), (1, 5, 3, 4)]);;
gap> mat := [[0, 0, (1, 4, 5), 0, 0, (1, 4, 3, 5)],
>            [0, (), 0, 0, (3, 5), 0],
>            [(), 0, 0, (3, 5), 0, 0]];;
gap> S := ReesZeroMatrixSemigroup(G, mat);;
gap> N := Group([(1, 4)(3, 5), (1, 5)(3, 4)]);;
gap> colBlocks := [, [2, 5], [3, 6], ];;
gap> rowBlocks := [, , ];;
gap> cong := RZMSCongruenceByLinkedTriple(S, N, colBlocks, rowBlocks);;
gap> classes := CongruenceClasses(cong);;
gap> IsRZMSCongruenceClassByLinkedTriple(classes);
true

##### 16.6-4 RMSCongruenceClassByLinkedTriple
 ‣ RMSCongruenceClassByLinkedTriple( cong, nCoset, colClass, rowClass ) ( operation )
 ‣ RZMSCongruenceClassByLinkedTriple( cong, nCoset, colClass, rowClass ) ( operation )

Returns: A Rees matrix or 0-matrix semigroup congruence class by linked triple.

This operation returns one congruence class of the congruence cong, as defined by the other three parameters.

The argument cong must be a Rees matrix or 0-matrix semigroup congruence by linked triple. If the linked triple consists of the three parameters N, colBlocks and rowBlocks, then nCoset must be a right coset of N, colClass must be a positive integer corresponding to a position in the list colBlocks, and rowClass must be a positive integer corresponding to a position in the list rowBlocks.

If the arguments are valid, an IsRMSCongruenceClassByLinkedTriple or IsRZMSCongruenceClassByLinkedTriple object is returned, which can be used like any other equivalence class in GAP. Otherwise, an error is returned.

gap> G := Group([(1, 4, 5), (1, 5, 3, 4)]);;
gap> mat := [[0, 0, (1, 4, 5), 0, 0, (1, 4, 3, 5)],
>            [0, (), 0, 0, (3, 5), 0],
>            [(), 0, 0, (3, 5), 0, 0]];;
gap> S := ReesZeroMatrixSemigroup(G, mat);;
gap> N := Group([(1, 4)(3, 5), (1, 5)(3, 4)]);;
gap> colBlocks := [, [2, 5], [3, 6], ];;
gap> rowBlocks := [, , ];;
gap> cong := RZMSCongruenceByLinkedTriple(S, N, colBlocks, rowBlocks);;
gap> class := RZMSCongruenceClassByLinkedTriple(cong,
> RightCoset(N, (1, 5)), 2, 3);
<congruence class of (2,(3,4),3)>

##### 16.6-5 IsLinkedTriple
 ‣ IsLinkedTriple( S, N, colBlocks, rowBlocks ) ( operation )

Returns: true or false.

This operation returns true if and only if the arguments (N, colBlocks, rowBlocks) describe a linked triple of the Rees matrix or 0-matrix semigroup S, as described above.

gap> G := Group([(1, 4, 5), (1, 5, 3, 4)]);;
gap> mat := [[0, 0, (1, 4, 5), 0, 0, (1, 4, 3, 5)],
>            [0, (), 0, 0, (3, 5), 0],
>            [(), 0, 0, (3, 5), 0, 0]];;
gap> S := ReesZeroMatrixSemigroup(G, mat);;
gap> N := Group([(1, 4)(3, 5), (1, 5)(3, 4)]);;
gap> colBlocks := [, [2, 5], [3, 6], ];;
gap> rowBlocks := [, , ];;
gap> IsLinkedTriple(S, N, colBlocks, rowBlocks);
true

##### 16.6-6 CanonicalRepresentative
 ‣ CanonicalRepresentative( class ) ( attribute )

Returns: A congruence class.

This attribute gives a canonical representative for the semigroup congruence class class. This representative can be used to identify a class uniquely.

At present this only works for simple and 0-simple semigroups.

gap> S := ReesZeroMatrixSemigroup(SymmetricGroup(3),
> [[(), (1, 3, 2)], [(1, 2), 0]]);;
gap> cong := CongruencesOfSemigroup(S);;
gap> class := CongruenceClasses(cong);;
gap> CanonicalRepresentative(class);
(1,(1,2,3),2)

##### 16.6-7 AsSemigroupCongruenceByGeneratingPairs
 ‣ AsSemigroupCongruenceByGeneratingPairs( cong ) ( operation )

Returns: A semigroup congruence.

This operation takes cong, a semigroup congruence, and returns the same congruence relation, but described by GAP's default method of defining semigroup congruences: a set of generating pairs for the congruence.

gap> S := ReesZeroMatrixSemigroup(SymmetricGroup(3),
>                                 [[(), (1, 3, 2)], [(1, 2), 0]]);;
gap> cong := CongruencesOfSemigroup(S);;
gap> AsSemigroupCongruenceByGeneratingPairs(cong);
<semigroup congruence over <Rees 0-matrix semigroup 2x2 over
Sym( [ 1 .. 3 ] )> with 1 generating pairs>

##### 16.6-8 AsRMSCongruenceByLinkedTriple
 ‣ AsRMSCongruenceByLinkedTriple( cong ) ( operation )
 ‣ AsRZMSCongruenceByLinkedTriple( cong ) ( operation )

Returns: A Rees matrix or 0-matrix semigroup congruence by linked triple.

This operation takes a semigroup congruence cong over a finite simple or 0-simple Rees 0-matrix semigroup, and returns that congruence relation in a new form: as either a congruence by linked triple, or a universal congruence.

If the congruence is not defined over an appropriate type of semigroup, then this function returns an error.

gap> S := ReesZeroMatrixSemigroup(SymmetricGroup(3),
> [[(), (1, 3, 2)], [(1, 2), 0]]);;
gap> x := ReesZeroMatrixSemigroupElement(S, 1, (1, 3, 2), 1);;
gap> y := ReesZeroMatrixSemigroupElement(S, 1, (), 1);;
gap> cong := SemigroupCongruenceByGeneratingPairs(S, [[x, y]]);;
gap> AsRZMSCongruenceByLinkedTriple(cong);
<semigroup congruence over <Rees 0-matrix semigroup 2x2 over
Sym( [ 1 .. 3 ] )> with linked triple (3,2,2)>

#### 16.7 Congruences on inverse semigroups

This section describes the implementation of congruences of inverse semigroups in the Semigroups package, and the functions associated with them. This code and this part of the manual were written by Michael Torpey. Most of the theorems used in this chapter are from Section 5.3 of [How95].

The congruences of an inverse semigroup are in 1-1 correspondence with its congruence pairs. A congruence pair is a pair (N, t) such that:

• N is a normal subsemigroup of S -- that is, a self-conjugate subsemigroup which contains all the idempotents of S,

• t is a normal congruence on E, the subsemigroup of all idempotents in S -- that is, a congruence on E such that if (e, f) is a pair in t, then the pair (a ^ -1 e a, a ^ -1 f a) is also in t,

satisfying the following conditions:

• If ae ∈ N and (e, a ^ -1 a) ∈ t, then a ∈ N,

• If a ∈ N, then (aa ^ -1 , a ^ -1 a) ∈ t.

By Theorem 5.3.3 in [How95], for any inverse semigroup, there is a bijection between its congruences and its congruence pairs. In this way, we can internally represent any congruence of such a semigroup by storing its associated congruence pair instead of a set of generating pairs, and thus perform many calculations on it more efficiently.

If we have a congruence C with congruence pair (N, t), it turns out that N is its kernel (that is, the set of all elements congruent to an idempotent) and that t is its trace (that is, the restriction of C to the idempotents). Hence, we refer to a congruence stored in this format as a "congruence by kernel and trace".

See cong_by_ker_trace_threshold in Section 6.3 for details on when this method is used.

##### 16.7-1 IsInverseSemigroupCongruenceByKernelTrace
 ‣ IsInverseSemigroupCongruenceByKernelTrace( cong ) ( category )

Returns: true or false.

This category contains any inverse semigroup congruence cong which is represented internally by its kernel and trace. The SemigroupCongruence (16.2-1) function may create an object of this category if its first argument S is an inverse semigroup and has sufficiently large size. It can be treated like any other semigroup congruence object.

See [How95] Section 5.3 for more details. See also InverseSemigroupCongruenceByKernelTrace (16.7-2).

gap> S := InverseSemigroup([
>  PartialPerm([4, 3, 1, 2]),
>  PartialPerm([1, 4, 2, 0, 3])],
>  rec(cong_by_ker_trace_threshold := 0));;
gap> cong := SemigroupCongruence(S, []);
<semigroup congruence over <inverse partial perm semigroup
of size 351, rank 5 with 2 generators> with congruence pair (24,24)>
gap> IsInverseSemigroupCongruenceByKernelTrace(cong);
true

##### 16.7-2 InverseSemigroupCongruenceByKernelTrace
 ‣ InverseSemigroupCongruenceByKernelTrace( S, kernel, traceBlocks ) ( function )

Returns: An inverse semigroup congruence by kernel and trace.

If S is an inverse semigroup, kernel is a subsemigroup of S, traceBlocks is a list of lists describing a congruence on the idempotents of S, and (kernel, trace) describes a valid congruence pair for S (see [How95] Section 5.3) then this function returns the semigroup congruence defined by that congruence pair.

See also KernelOfSemigroupCongruence (16.7-4) and TraceOfSemigroupCongruence (16.7-5).

gap> S := InverseSemigroup([
>   PartialPerm([2, 3]), PartialPerm([2, 0, 3])]);;
gap> kernel := InverseSemigroup([
>   PartialPerm([1, 0, 3]), PartialPerm([0, 2, 3]),
>   PartialPerm([1, 2]), PartialPerm(),
>   PartialPerm()]);;
gap> trace := [
>  [PartialPerm([0, 2, 3])],
>  [PartialPerm([1, 2])],
>  [PartialPerm([1, 0, 3])],
>  [PartialPerm([0, 0, 3]), PartialPerm([0, 2]),
>   PartialPerm(), PartialPerm([], [])]];;
gap> cong := InverseSemigroupCongruenceByKernelTrace(S, kernel, trace);
<semigroup congruence over <inverse partial perm semigroup of rank 3
with 2 generators> with congruence pair (13,4)>

##### 16.7-3 AsInverseSemigroupCongruenceByKernelTrace
 ‣ AsInverseSemigroupCongruenceByKernelTrace( cong ) ( attribute )

Returns: An inverse semigroup congruence by kernel and trace.

If cong is a semigroup congruence over an inverse semigroup, then this attribute returns an object which describes the same congruence, but with an internal representation defined by that congruence's kernel and trace.

See [How95] section 5.3 for more details.

gap> I := InverseSemigroup([
>  PartialPerm([2, 3]), PartialPerm([2, 0, 3])]);;
gap> cong := SemigroupCongruenceByGeneratingPairs(I,
> [[PartialPerm([0, 1, 3]), PartialPerm([0, 1])],
>  [PartialPerm([]), PartialPerm([1, 2])]]);
<semigroup congruence over <inverse partial perm semigroup of rank 3
with 2 generators> with 2 generating pairs>
gap> cong2 := AsInverseSemigroupCongruenceByKernelTrace(cong);
<semigroup congruence over <inverse partial perm semigroup of rank 3
with 2 generators> with congruence pair (19,1)>

##### 16.7-4 KernelOfSemigroupCongruence
 ‣ KernelOfSemigroupCongruence( cong ) ( attribute )

Returns: An inverse semigroup.

If cong is a congruence over a semigroup with inverse op, then this attribute returns the kernel of that congruence; that is, the inverse subsemigroup consisting of all elements which are related to an idempotent by cong.

gap> I := InverseSemigroup([
>  PartialPerm([2, 3]), PartialPerm([2, 0, 3])]);;
gap> cong := SemigroupCongruence(I,
> [[PartialPerm([0, 1, 3]), PartialPerm([0, 1])],
>  [PartialPerm([]), PartialPerm([1, 2])]]);
<semigroup congruence over <inverse partial perm semigroup
of size 19, rank 3 with 2 generators> with 2 generating pairs>
gap> KernelOfSemigroupCongruence(cong);
<inverse partial perm semigroup of rank 3 with 5 generators>


##### 16.7-5 TraceOfSemigroupCongruence
 ‣ TraceOfSemigroupCongruence( cong ) ( attribute )

Returns: A list of lists.

If cong is an inverse semigroup congruence by kernel and trace, then this attribute returns the restriction of cong to the idempotents of the semigroup. This is in block form: each idempotent will appear in precisely one list, and two idempotents will be in the same list if and only if they are related by cong.

gap> I := InverseSemigroup([
>  PartialPerm([2, 3]), PartialPerm([2, 0, 3])]);;
gap> cong := SemigroupCongruence(I,
> [[PartialPerm([0, 1, 3]), PartialPerm([0, 1])],
>  [PartialPerm([]), PartialPerm([1, 2])]]);
<semigroup congruence over <inverse partial perm semigroup
of size 19, rank 3 with 2 generators> with 2 generating pairs>
gap> TraceOfSemigroupCongruence(cong);
[ [ <empty partial perm>, <identity partial perm on [ 1 ]>,
<identity partial perm on [ 2 ]>,
<identity partial perm on [ 1, 2 ]>,
<identity partial perm on [ 3 ]>,
<identity partial perm on [ 2, 3 ]>,
<identity partial perm on [ 1, 3 ]> ] ]

##### 16.7-6 IsInverseSemigroupCongruenceClassByKernelTrace
 ‣ IsInverseSemigroupCongruenceClassByKernelTrace( obj ) ( category )

Returns: true or false.

This category contains any congruence class which belongs to a congruence which is represented internally by its kernel and trace. See InverseSemigroupCongruenceByKernelTrace (16.7-2).

See [How95] Section 5.3 for more details.

gap> I := InverseSemigroup([
>  PartialPerm([2, 3]), PartialPerm([2, 0, 3])],
> rec(cong_by_ker_trace_threshold := 0));;
gap> cong := SemigroupCongruence(I,
> [[PartialPerm([0, 1, 3]), PartialPerm([0, 1])],
>  [PartialPerm([]), PartialPerm([1, 2])]]);;
gap> class := CongruenceClassOfElement(cong,
>                                      PartialPerm([1, 2], [2, 3]));;
gap> IsInverseSemigroupCongruenceClassByKernelTrace(class);
true

##### 16.7-7 MinimumGroupCongruence
 ‣ MinimumGroupCongruence( S ) ( attribute )

Returns: An inverse semigroup congruence by kernel and trace.

If S is an inverse semigroup, then this function returns the least congruence on S whose quotient is a group.

gap> S := InverseSemigroup([
>   PartialPerm([5, 2, 0, 0, 1, 4]),
>   PartialPerm([1, 4, 6, 3, 5, 0, 2])]);;
gap> cong := MinimumGroupCongruence(S);
<semigroup congruence over <inverse partial perm semigroup of rank 7
with 2 generators> with congruence pair (59,1)>
gap> IsGroupAsSemigroup(S / cong);
true

#### 16.8 Rees congruences

A Rees congruence is defined by a semigroup ideal. It is a congruence on a semigroup S which has one congruence class equal to a semigroup ideal I of S, and every other congruence class being a singleton.

##### 16.8-1 SemigroupIdealOfReesCongruence
 ‣ SemigroupIdealOfReesCongruence( cong ) ( attribute )

Returns: A semigroup ideal.

If cong is a rees congruence (see IsReesCongruence (Reference: IsReesCongruence)) then this attribute returns the two-sided ideal that was used to define it, i.e.~the ideal of elements in the only non-trivial congruence class of cong.

gap> S := Semigroup([
> Transformation([2, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1]),
> Transformation([6, 4, 4, 4, 6, 1])]);;
gap> I := SemigroupIdeal(S,
> Transformation([4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 2]),
> Transformation([3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 2]));;
gap> cong := ReesCongruenceOfSemigroupIdeal(I);;
gap> SemigroupIdealOfReesCongruence(cong);
<non-regular transformation semigroup ideal of degree 6 with
2 generators>

##### 16.8-2 IsReesCongruenceClass
 ‣ IsReesCongruenceClass( obj ) ( category )

Returns: true or false.

This category describes a congruence class of a Rees congruence. A congruence class of a Rees congruence either contains all the elements of an ideal, or is a singleton (see IsReesCongruence (Reference: IsReesCongruence)).

An object of this type may be used in the same way as any other congruence class object.

gap> S := Semigroup(
> Transformation([2, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1]),
> Transformation([6, 4, 4, 4, 6, 1]));;
gap> I := SemigroupIdeal(S,
> Transformation([4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 2]),
> Transformation([3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 2]));;
gap> cong := ReesCongruenceOfSemigroupIdeal(I);;
gap> classes := CongruenceClasses(cong);;
gap> IsReesCongruenceClass(classes);
true

#### 16.9 Universal congruences

The linked triples of a completely 0-simple Rees 0-matrix semigroup describe only its non-universal congruences. In any one of these, the zero element of the semigroup is related only to itself. However, for any semigroup S the universal relation S × S is a congruence; called the universal congruence. The universal congruence on a semigroup has its own unique representation.

Since many things we want to calculate about congruences are trivial in the case of the universal congruence, this package contains a category specifically designed for it, IsUniversalSemigroupCongruence. We also define IsUniversalSemigroupCongruenceClass, which represents the single congruence class of the universal congruence.

##### 16.9-1 IsUniversalSemigroupCongruence
 ‣ IsUniversalSemigroupCongruence( obj ) ( property )

Returns: true or false.

This property describes a type of semigroup congruence, which must refer to the universal semigroup congruence S × S. Externally, an object of this type may be used in the same way as any other object in the category IsSemigroupCongruence (Reference: IsSemigroupCongruence).

An object of this type may be constructed with UniversalSemigroupCongruence or this representation may be selected automatically as an alternative to an IsRZMSCongruenceByLinkedTriple object (since the universal congruence cannot be represented by a linked triple).

gap> S := Semigroup([Transformation([3, 2, 3])]);;
gap> U := UniversalSemigroupCongruence(S);;
gap> IsUniversalSemigroupCongruence(U);
true

##### 16.9-2 IsUniversalSemigroupCongruenceClass
 ‣ IsUniversalSemigroupCongruenceClass( obj ) ( category )

Returns: true or false.

This category describes a class of the universal semigroup congruence (see IsUniversalSemigroupCongruence (16.9-1)). A universal semigroup congruence by definition has precisely one congruence class, which contains all of the elements of the semigroup in question.

gap> S := Semigroup([Transformation([3, 2, 3])]);;
gap> U := UniversalSemigroupCongruence(S);;
gap> classes := CongruenceClasses(U);;
gap> IsUniversalSemigroupCongruenceClass(classes);
true

##### 16.9-3 UniversalSemigroupCongruence
 ‣ UniversalSemigroupCongruence( S ) ( operation )

Returns: A universal semigroup congruence.

This operation returns the universal semigroup congruence for the semigroup S. It can be used in the same way as any other semigroup congruence object.

gap> S := ReesZeroMatrixSemigroup(SymmetricGroup(3),
> [[(), (1, 3, 2)], [(1, 2), 0]]);;
gap> UniversalSemigroupCongruence(S);
<universal semigroup congruence over
<Rees 0-matrix semigroup 2x2 over Sym( [ 1 .. 3 ] )>>
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