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5 Private Extensions of the AtlasRep Package
 5.1 Adding a Private Data Directory
 5.2 The Effect of Private Extensions on the User Interface
 5.3 An Example of Extending the AtlasRep Package

5 Private Extensions of the AtlasRep Package

It may be interesting to use the functions of the GAP interface also for representations or programs that are not part of the ATLAS of Group Representations. This chapter describes how to achieve this.

The main idea is that users can notify directories containing the "private" data files, which may consist of

  1. new faithful representations and programs for groups that are declared already in the "official" ATLAS of Group Representations,

  2. the declaration of groups that are not declared in the "official" ATLAS of Group Representations, and representations and programs for them, and

  3. the definition of new kinds of representations and programs.

The first two issues are dealt with in Section 5.1 and Section 5.2. The last is described in Section 7.5.

Finally, an example of using private extensions is given in Section 5.3.

Several of the sanity checks for the official part of the AtlasRep package make sense also for private extensions, see Section 7.8 for more information.

5.1 Adding a Private Data Directory

After the AtlasRep package has been loaded into the GAP session, one can add private data. However, one should not add private files to the local data directories of the package, or modify files in these directories. Instead, additional data should be put into separate directories. It should be noted that a data file is fetched from a server only if the local data directories do not contain a file with this name, independent of the contents of the files. (As a consequence, corrupted files in the local data directories are not automatically replaced by a correct server file.)

5.1-1 AtlasOfGroupRepresentationsNotifyPrivateDirectory
‣ AtlasOfGroupRepresentationsNotifyPrivateDirectory( dir[, dirid][, test] )( function )

Returns: true if none of the filenames with admissible format in the directory dir is contained in other data directories and if the data belongs to groups whose names have been declared, otherwise false.

Let dir be a directory (see Reference: Directories) or a string denoting the name of a directory (such that the GAP object describing this directory can be obtained by calling Directory (Reference: Directory) with the argument dir). In the following, let dirname be the name of the directory. So dirname can be an absolute path or a path relative to the home directory of the user (starting with a tilde character ~) or a path relative to the directory where GAP was started.

If the optional argument dirid is given, it must be a string. This value will be used in the identifier components of the records that are returned by interface functions (see Section 3.5) for data contained in the directory dir. Note that the directory name may be different in different GAP sessions or for different users who want to access the same data, whereas the identifier components shall be independent of such differences. The default for dirid is dirname.

If the optional argument test is given, it must be true or false. In the true case, consistency checks are switched on while the file toc.g is read. This costs some extra time, but it is recommended after each extension of the file toc.g. The default for test is false.

AtlasOfGroupRepresentationsNotifyPrivateDirectory notifies the data in the directory dir to the AtlasRep package. First the pair [ dirname, dirid ] is added to the private component of AtlasOfGroupRepresentationsInfo (7.1-6). If the directory contains a file with the name toc.g then this file is read; this file is useful for adding new group names using AGR.GNAN and for adding describing data about the representations, see Section 7.7. Next the table of contents of the private directory is built from the list of files contained in the private directory or in its subdirectories (one layer deep).

Only those files are considered whose names match an admissible format (see Section 7.6). Filenames that are already contained in another data directory of the AtlasRep package are ignored, and messages about these filenames are printed if the info level of InfoAtlasRep (7.1-1) is at least 1.

Note that this implies that the files of the "official" (i.e. non-private) data directories have priority over files in private directories.

If the directory contains files for groups whose names have not been declared before and if the info level of InfoAtlasRep (7.1-1) is at least 1 then a message about these names is printed.

For convenience, the user may collect the notifications of private data directories in the file gaprc (see Section Reference: The gap.ini and gaprc files).

5.1-2 AtlasOfGroupRepresentationsForgetPrivateDirectory
‣ AtlasOfGroupRepresentationsForgetPrivateDirectory( dirid )( function )

If dirid is the identifier of a private data directory that has been notified with AtlasOfGroupRepresentationsNotifyPrivateDirectory (5.1-1) then AtlasOfGroupRepresentationsForgetPrivateDirectory removes the directory from the list of notified private directories; this means that from then on, the data in this directory cannot be accessed anymore in the current session.

5.2 The Effect of Private Extensions on the User Interface

First suppose that only new groups or new data for known groups are added.

In this case, DisplayAtlasInfo (3.5-1) lists the private representations and programs in the same way as the "official" data, except that private parts are marked with the string stored in the component markprivate of AtlasOfGroupRepresentationsInfo (7.1-6); by default, this is a star *. The ordering of representations listed by DisplayAtlasInfo (3.5-1) (and referred to by AtlasGenerators (3.5-2)) will in general change when private directories are notified. If several private directories are used then the ordering of data may depend on the ordering of notifications. For the other interface functions described in Chapter 3, the only difference is that also the private data can be accessed. In particular the "free format" groupnameGi-XdescrWn for straight line programs (see Section 7.6) may be used in private directories; the data can be accessed with AtlasProgram (3.5-3), where the last two arguments are the strings "other" and descr.

If also private data types are introduced (see Section 7.5) then additional columns or rows can appear in the output of DisplayAtlasInfo (3.5-1), and new inputs can become meaningful for all interface functions. Examples for these changes can be found in Section 5.3.

5.3 An Example of Extending the AtlasRep Package

In the beginning we set the info level of InfoAtlasRep (7.1-1) to 1.

gap> level:= InfoLevel( InfoAtlasRep );;
gap> SetInfoLevel( InfoAtlasRep, 1 );

Let us assume that the directory privdir contains data for the cyclic group C_4 of order 4 and for the alternating group A_5 on 5 points, respectively. Note that it is obvious what the term "standard generators" means for the group C_4.

Further let us assume that privdir contains the following files.

C4G1-p4B0.m1

a faithful permutation representation of C_4 on 4 points,

C4G1-max1W1

the straight line program that returns the square of its unique input,

C4G1-a2W1

the straight line program that raises its unique input to the third power,

C4G1-XtestW1

the straight line program that returns the square of its unique input,

A5G1-p60B0.m1 and A5G1-p60B0.m2

the regular permutation representation of A_5.

The directory and the files can be created as follows.

gap> prv:= DirectoryTemporary( "privdir" );;
gap> FileString( Filename( prv, "C4G1-p4B0.m1" ),
>                MeatAxeString( [ (1,2,3,4) ], 4 ) );;
gap> FileString( Filename( prv, "C4G1-max1W1" ),
>                "inp 1\npwr 2 1 2\noup 1 2\n" );;
gap> FileString( Filename( prv, "C4G1-XtestW1" ),
>                "inp 1\npwr 2 1 2\noup 1 2\n" );;
gap> FileString( Filename( prv, "C4G1-a2W1" ),
>                "inp 1\npwr 3 1 2\noup 1 2\n" );;
gap> FileString( Filename( prv, "C4G1-Ar1aB0.g" ),
>                "return rec( generators:= [ [[E(4)]] ] );\n" );;
gap> points:= Elements( AlternatingGroup( 5 ) );;
gap> FileString( Filename( prv, "A5G1-p60B0.m1" ),
>      MeatAxeString( [ Permutation( (1,2)(3,4), points, OnRight ) ], 60 ) );;
gap> FileString( Filename( prv, "A5G1-p60B0.m2" ),
>      MeatAxeString( [ Permutation( (1,3,5), points, OnRight ) ], 60 ) );;

(We could also introduce intermediate directories C4 and A5, say, each with the data for one group only. Here we do not show this because creating directories programmatically seems to be possible only with the GAP package IO.)

The official part of the AtlasRep package does not contain information about C_4, so we first notify this group, in the file privdir/toc.g. Besides the name of the group, we store the following information: the group order, the number of (classes of) maximal subgroups, their orders, their structures, and describing data about the two permutation representations. (The group A_5 is known with name A5 in the official part of the AtlasRep package, so it cannot be notified again.)

gap> FileString( Filename( prv, "toc.g" ), Concatenation( [
>        "AGR.GNAN(\"C4\",\"C4\");\n",
>        "AGR.GRS(\"C4\",4);\n",
>        "AGR.MXN(\"C4\",1);\n",
>        "AGR.MXO(\"C4\",[2]);\n",
>        "AGR.MXS(\"C4\",[\"C2\"]);\n",
>        "AGR.API(\"C4G1-p4B0\",[1,4,\"imprim\",\"1 < C2\"]);\n",
>        "AGR.API(\"A5G1-p60B0\",[1,60,\"imprim\",\"1 < A4\"]);\n",
>        ] ) );;

Then we notify the private directory.

gap> AtlasOfGroupRepresentationsNotifyPrivateDirectory( prv, "priv", true );
true

Now we can use the interface functions for accessing the data in the private directory.

gap> DisplayAtlasInfo( [ "C4" ] );
group | # | maxes | cl | cyc | out | fnd | chk | prs
------+---+-------+----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----
C4*   | 2 |     1 |    |     |   2 |     |     |    
gap> DisplayAtlasInfo( "C4" );
Representations for G = C4:    (all refer to std. generators 1)
---------------------------
1: G <= Sym(4)*   rank 4, on cosets of 1 < C2
2: G <= GL(1a,C)* 

Programs for G = C4:    (all refer to std. generators 1)
--------------------
automorphisms:
  2*
maxes (all 1):
  1*:  C2
other scripts:
  "test"*
gap> DisplayAtlasInfo( "C4", IsPermGroup, true );
Representations for G = C4:    (all refer to std. generators 1)
---------------------------
1: G <= Sym(4)* rank 4, on cosets of 1 < C2
gap> DisplayAtlasInfo( "C4", IsMatrixGroup );
Representations for G = C4:    (all refer to std. generators 1)
---------------------------
2: G <= GL(1a,C)* 
gap> DisplayAtlasInfo( "C4", Dimension, 2 );
gap> DisplayAtlasInfo( "A5", NrMovedPoints, 60 );
Representations for G = A5:    (all refer to std. generators 1)
---------------------------
4: G <= Sym(60)* rank 60, on cosets of 1 < A4
gap> info:= OneAtlasGeneratingSetInfo( "C4" );
rec( groupname := "C4", id := "", 
  identifier := [ [ "priv", "C4" ], [ "C4G1-p4B0.m1" ], 1, 4 ], 
  isPrimitive := false, p := 4, rankAction := 4, 
  repname := "C4G1-p4B0", repnr := 1, size := 4, 
  stabilizer := "1 < C2", standardization := 1, transitivity := 1, 
  type := "perm" )
gap> AtlasGenerators( info.identifier );
rec( generators := [ (1,2,3,4) ], groupname := "C4", id := "", 
  identifier := [ [ "priv", "C4" ], [ "C4G1-p4B0.m1" ], 1, 4 ], 
  isPrimitive := false, p := 4, rankAction := 4, 
  repname := "C4G1-p4B0", repnr := 1, size := 4, 
  stabilizer := "1 < C2", standardization := 1, transitivity := 1, 
  type := "perm" )
gap> AtlasProgram( "C4", 1 );
rec( groupname := "C4", 
  identifier := [ [ "priv", "C4" ], "C4G1-max1W1", 1 ], 
  program := <straight line program>, size := 2, standardization := 1,
  subgroupname := "C2" )
gap> AtlasProgram( "C4", "maxes", 1 );
rec( groupname := "C4", 
  identifier := [ [ "priv", "C4" ], "C4G1-max1W1", 1 ], 
  program := <straight line program>, size := 2, standardization := 1,
  subgroupname := "C2" )
gap> AtlasProgram( "C4", "maxes", 2 );
fail
gap> AtlasGenerators( "C4", 1 );
rec( generators := [ (1,2,3,4) ], groupname := "C4", id := "", 
  identifier := [ [ "priv", "C4" ], [ "C4G1-p4B0.m1" ], 1, 4 ], 
  isPrimitive := false, p := 4, rankAction := 4, 
  repname := "C4G1-p4B0", repnr := 1, size := 4, 
  stabilizer := "1 < C2", standardization := 1, transitivity := 1, 
  type := "perm" )
gap> AtlasGenerators( "C4", 2 );
rec( dim := 1, generators := [ [ [ E(4) ] ] ], groupname := "C4", 
  id := "a", identifier := [ [ "priv", "C4" ], "C4G1-Ar1aB0.g", 1, 1 ]
    , repname := "C4G1-Ar1aB0", repnr := 2, size := 4, 
  standardization := 1, type := "matalg" )
gap> AtlasGenerators( "C4", 3 );
fail
gap> AtlasProgram( "C4", "other", "test" );
rec( groupname := "C4", 
  identifier := [ [ "priv", "C4" ], "C4G1-XtestW1", 1 ], 
  program := <straight line program>, standardization := 1 )

We can restrict the data shown by DisplayAtlasInfo (3.5-1) to the private directory, as follows.

gap> DisplayAtlasInfo( "contents", "priv" );
group                    | # | maxes | cl | cyc | out | fnd | chk | p*
-------------------------+---+-------+----+-----+-----+-----+-----+--*
A5*                      | 1 |       |    |     |     |     |     |  *
C4*                      | 2 |     1 |    |     |   2 |     |     |  *

For checking the data in the private directory, we apply the relevant sanity checks (see Section 7.8).

gap> if not IsBound( AGR.Test ) then
>      ReadPackage( "atlasrep", "gap/test.g" );
>    fi;
gap> AGR.Test.Words( "priv" );
true
gap> AGR.Test.FileHeaders( "priv" );
true
gap> AGR.Test.Files( "priv" );
true
gap> AGR.Test.BinaryFormat( "priv" );
true
gap> AGR.Test.Primitivity( "priv" );
true
gap> AGR.Test.Characters( "priv" );
true

Finally, we "uninstall" the private directory, and reset the info level that had been set to 1 in the beginning. (Also the group name C4 is removed this way, which is an advantage of using a toc.g file over calling AGRGNAN directly.), Note that we need not remove the data in the temporary directory, GAP will do this automatically.

gap> AtlasOfGroupRepresentationsForgetPrivateDirectory( "priv" );
gap> SetInfoLevel( InfoAtlasRep, level );
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