This chapter contains the description of some functions that do not fit in any other chapter.

`‣ ExtendedCartanMatrix` ( R ) | ( operation ) |

Here `R` is a root system. This function returns the extended Cartan matrix of `R`. That is the Cartan matrix correponding to the lowest root (coming first), and the simple roots of `R`.

The output is a record with components `ECM` (the extended Cartan matrix) and `labels` (the labels of the corresponding Dynkin diagram; they are the integer coefficients of a linear dependency of the roots corresponding to the nodes).

gap> R:= RootSystem("F",4);; gap> ExtendedCartanMatrix(R); rec( ECM := [ [ 2, -1, 0, 0, 0 ], [ -1, 2, -1, 0, 0 ], [ 0, -1, 2, -2, 0 ], [ 0, 0, -1, 2, -1 ], [ 0, 0, 0, -1, 2 ] ], labels := [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 2 ] )

`‣ CartanType` ( C ) | ( operation ) |

Here `C` is a Cartan matrix (i.e., an integer matrix with 2-s on the diagonal, non-positive entries otherwise, and there exists a diagonal integer matrix `D` such that `CD` is a positive definite symmetric matrix). This function returns a record with two components: `types`, a list containing the types of the simple components of the corresponding root system, and `enumeration`, a standard enumeration of the vertices of the Dynkin diagram of `C`. So this can be used to construct isomorphisms of root systems.

gap> C:= [[2,0,-3,0],[0,2,0,-1],[-1,0,2,0],[0,-1,0,2]]; [ [ 2, 0, -3, 0 ], [ 0, 2, 0, -1 ], [ -1, 0, 2, 0 ], [ 0, -1, 0, 2 ] ] gap> CartanType(C); rec( types := [ [ "G", 2 ], [ "A", 2 ] ], enumeration := [ [ 3, 1 ], [ 2, 4 ] ] )

`‣ WeylTransversal` ( R, inds ) | ( operation ) |

`‣ WeylTransversal` ( R, roots ) | ( operation ) |

Here `R` is a root system, and `inds` a list of indices of *positive* roots of `R` that form a set of simple roots of a root subsystem of `R` (the system does not check this). Here an index of a positive root is its position in the list `PositiveRootsNF( R )`.

This function returns a list of shortest representatives of the right cosets of the corresponding Weyl subgroup of the Weyl group of `R`. The elements of the Weyl group are given as reduced expressions.

In the second form `rts` is a list of roots of `R`, that form a set of simple roots of a root subsystem of `R` (again, this is not checked). In this form the roots so not have to be positive. They have to be represented with respect to the basis of simple roots, i.e., they are elements of `PositiveRootsNF(R)` or of `NegativeRootsNF(R)`.

gap> R:= RootSystem("A",3);; gap> WeylTransversal( R, [2,6] ); [ [ ], [ 1 ], [ 3 ], [ 1, 2 ], [ 1, 3 ], [ 3, 2 ] ] gap> R:= RootSystem("E",8);; gap> p:= PositiveRootsNF(R);; gap> a:= WeylTransversal( R, [p[1],p[3],p[4],p[5],p[6],p[7],p[8],-p[120]] );; gap> Length(a); 1920

`‣ SizeOfWeylGroup` ( R ) | ( operation ) |

`‣ SizeOfWeylGroup` ( type ) | ( operation ) |

`‣ SizeOfWeylGroup` ( X, n ) | ( operation ) |

In the first from `R` is a root system. In the second form `type` is a list of lists describing the type of a root system. For example: `[["A",3],["B",5],["G",2]]`. In the third form `X` is a letter (i.e., a string) and `n` a positive integer, so that ` Xn` is the type of a root system. In all cases the number of elements of the Weyl group is returned.

gap> R:= RootSystem( SimpleLieAlgebra("E",6,Rationals) );; gap> SizeOfWeylGroup(R); 51840 gap> SizeOfWeylGroup( [["E",6]] ); 51840 gap> SizeOfWeylGroup( "E", 6 ); 51840

`‣ IsomorphismOfSemisimpleLieAlgebras` ( L1, L2 ) | ( operation ) |

Here `L1` and `L2` are two semisimple Lie algebras that are known to be isomorphic (i.e., they have the same type). This function returns an isomorphism.

`‣ AdmissibleLattice` ( V ) | ( operation ) |

Here `V` is a *simple* module over a semisimple Lie algebra. This function returns a basis of `V` that spans an admissible lattice in `V`. This means that for a root vector x of the acting Lie algebra the matrix exp( mx ) is integral, where mx denotes the matrix of x relative to the admissible lattice.

gap> L:= SimpleLieAlgebra("G",2,Rationals);; gap> V:= HighestWeightModule( L, [2,0] ); <27-dimensional left-module over <Lie algebra of dimension 14 over Rationals>> gap> B:=AdmissibleLattice(V);; gap> x:= L.1; v.1 gap> mx:= MatrixOfAction( B, x );; gap> IsZero(mx^4); IsZero(mx^5); false true gap> exp:=Sum( List( [0..4], i -> mx^i/Factorial(i) ) );; gap> ForAll( Flat(exp), IsInt ); true

`‣ DirectSumDecomposition` ( V ) | ( operation ) |

Here `V` is a module over a semisimple Lie algebra; this function computes a list of sub-modules such that `V` is their direct sum.

gap> L:= SimpleLieAlgebra("G",2,Rationals);; gap> V:= HighestWeightModule( L, [1,0] );; gap> W:= TensorProductOfAlgebraModules( V, V ); <49-dimensional left-module over <Lie algebra of dimension 14 over Rationals>> gap> DirectSumDecomposition( W ); [ <left-module over <Lie algebra of dimension 14 over Rationals>>, <left-module over <Lie algebra of dimension 14 over Rationals>>, <left-module over <Lie algebra of dimension 14 over Rationals>>, <left-module over <Lie algebra of dimension 14 over Rationals>> ] gap> List( last, Dimension ); [ 14, 7, 1, 27 ]

`‣ CharacteristicsOfStrata` ( L, hw ) | ( operation ) |

Here `L` is a semisimple Lie algebra over a field of characteristic 0. Secondly, `hw` is a dominant weight, represented as a list of non-negative integers (where the ordering of the fundamantal weights is given by the Cartan matrix of the root system of `L`). Let G denote the semisimple algebraic group acting on the irreducible representation with highest weight `hw`. Hesselink ([Hes79]) defined a stratification of the nullcone relative to the action of G. Popov and Vinberg ([VP89]) have described this stratification in terms of characteristics, which are elements of a Cartan subalgebra of `L`. To each characteristic there corresponds a stratum. This function is an implementation of an algorithm due to Popov ([Pop03]), for computing the characteristics of the strata. It returns a list of two lists. The first list contains the characteristics. The second list contains the dimensions of the corresponding strata. If the highest weight `hw` defines the adjoint representation, then the characteristics of the strata are exactly the characteristics of the nilpotent orbits in `L`. This means the following: let h be a characteristic, then there are e,f in `L` such that the triple h,e,f satisfies the commutation relations of mathfraksl_2, and the elements e thus obtained are the representatives of the nilpotent G-orbits in `L`.

gap> L:= SimpleLieAlgebra("G",2,Rationals);; gap> L:= SimpleLieAlgebra("G",2,Rationals);; gap> CharacteristicsOfStrata( L, [0,1] ); [ [ v.13+(2)*v.14, (2)*v.13+(3)*v.14, (2)*v.13+(4)*v.14, (6)*v.13+(10)*v.14 ], [ 6, 8, 10, 12 ] ]

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