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5 Subgroup Lattices - Systematic Description

Sections

  1. GraphicSubgroupLattice
  2. GraphicSubgroupLattice, Protocol of Group Theoretic Constructions
  3. GraphicSubgroupLattice, Labelling of Levels
  4. GraphicSubgroupLattice, Moving Vertices
  5. GraphicSubgroupLattice, Selecting Vertices
  6. GraphicSubgroupLattice, Inserting Vertices
  7. GraphicSubgroupLattice, Sheet Menu
  8. GraphicSubgroupLattice, Poset Menu
  9. GraphicSubgroupLattice, Subgroups Menu
  10. GraphicSubgroupLattice, Information Menu
  11. Vertex Shapes
  12. GraphicSubgroupLattice for FpGroups, Subgroups Menu
  13. GraphicSubgroupLattice for FpGroups, Information Menu

In this chapter we give details about the various options and menus available in a systematic way.

5.1 GraphicSubgroupLattice

  • GraphicSubgroupLattice( g )

    GraphicSubgroupLattice creates a new graphic sheet for the Hasse diagram of the subgroup lattice of g. The next sections describe how to select and move vertices and the following sections describe the available menus.

    gap> GraphicSubgroupLattice( DihedralGroup(8) );
    <graphic subgroup lattice "GraphicSubgroupLattice">
    

  • GraphicSubgroupLattice( g, width, height )

    In this form GraphicSubgroupLattice creates a graphic sheet of initial dimensions width times height. However it is still possible to change these dimensions later using either the menu (described in GraphicSubgroupLattice, Poset Menu) or the operation Resize for graphic sheets (see Resize).

    This function is the same for all types of groups. It only behaves differently according to some properties of the group. For example finitely presented groups are treated differently because other algorithms apply in this case and some of the standard ones are not feasible to be carried out.

    In contrast to the GAP3 version of XGAP all graphic subgroup lattices are interactive so you can always remove vertices. For a finite group you can still get the full lattice by choosing All Subgroups for the whole group.

    5.2 GraphicSubgroupLattice, Protocol of Group Theoretic Constructions

    labelloggingfacility XGAP offers the possibility to write a protocol of the group theoretic constructions you perform via mouse clicks. This is convenient because otherwise you have no record of what you did. The normal GAP command script cannot supply this because the menu entries you select do not produce useful output there.

    You start the protocol facility by selecting Start logging from the Subgroups menu. You are prompted for the file name of the protocol with a file selector box. After selecting OK in this box, all subsequent actions are logged in the protocol file. You can switch this feature off by selecting Stop logging from the Subgroups menu.

    Note that when you select SelectedGroups to GAP from the Subgroups menu, the usual GAP logging is also directed to the XGAP log file. This is stopped when you select InsertVertices from GAP from the Subgroups menu. The idea of this is that you also see the GAP commands you issue within an XGAP session in the XGAP protocol file, if you temporarily work with the keyboard instead of the mouse. See Start logging and Stop logging for a description of the menu entries.

    5.3 GraphicSubgroupLattice, Labelling of Levels

    labellevelsintro We intend to represent subgroups of the same index at the same height of the graphic lattice. For this purpose we introduce ``levels'' as horizontal slices of a graphic subgroup lattice.

    All vertices for subgroups of a certain finite index are placed in exactly one common level. But what about infinite indices?

    Every level has a ``level parameter''. There are three types of levels: ``finite index'', ``finite size'', and ``infinity''. ``finite index'' means, that the index of the subgroups in this level is a certain, finite natural number, the level parameter is exactly this number. ``finite size'' means, that the size of the subgroups in this level is finite and the index is either not known (to GAP) or infinity. The level parameter is the size but with a negative sign. If the index is infinity and the size is not known, the third type applies: ``infinity''. In each ``infinity'' level only one vertex can exist.

    This means that ``finite index'' takes precedence over ``finite size'' and ``infinity'', and ``finite size'' takes precedence over ``infinity'' if XGAP is in doubt which level to choose for a new vertex.

    If the group in question is a space group provided by the CRYST package, levels of type ``infinity'' are also labelled by the Hirsch length of the subgroup, which is the number of infinite cyclic factors in any given subnormal series. Note that this is only implemented for space groups as of this writing, although the Hirsch length is defined for a wider range of groups.

    For every graphic subgroup lattice the levels are partially ordered by the following rules:

    Note that in general different ``infinity'' levels are not comparable in this partial order!

    On the screen, the levels are of course always totally ordered with respect to their height. XGAP ensures that this total ordering is always compatible with the abovementioned partial ordering. This means, that the user can permute ``infinity'' levels, as long as this does not violate the partial order by the Hirsch lengths and the principle, that a vertex ``containing'' another one is drawn higher on the screen.

    Note that the level a vertex belongs to will be changed, when new information about the subgroup is available. This happens if the user chooses any entry in the information menu and new information is available thereafter.

    5.4 GraphicSubgroupLattice, Moving Vertices

    In order to move a vertex, place the pointer inside the vertex using the mouse, and press the left mouse button. Hold the mouse button pressed, and start moving the pointer by moving the mouse. The vertex will now follow the pointer, but it is not possible to move the vertex out of the boundaries of its level. or lower than a vertex of a group of smaller size. As soon as you release the left mouse button the vertex will stop following the pointer and, if the vertex was a member of a conjugacy class, the remaining elements of the class are moved.

    If you hold down the SHIFT key before moving a vertex as described above then only the selected vertex is moved but not all members of the same class. You can realign the vertices of a class by selecting one of them and choose Rearrange Classes in the Poset menu (see Rearrange Classes).

    5.5 GraphicSubgroupLattice, Selecting Vertices

    Selected vertices are represented by a slightly thicker circle and, if your screen supports color, are colored red. There are five different ways to select or deselect a vertex or a bunch of vertices.

    Place the pointer inside a vertex and press the left mouse button. Release the button immediately without moving the mouse. This will deselect all other vertices and select this vertex. If the vertex was already the only selected vertex it is deselected.

    Place the pointer inside a vertex, hold down the SHIFT key, and press the left mouse button. Release the button immediately without moving the mouse, release the SHIFT key afterwards. If the vertex was deselected this action will select it in addition to any other selected vertices. If the vertex was already selected it will be deselected.

    Place the pointer outside any vertex and press the left mouse button. Keep the button pressed and start moving the pointer. This will create a rubber band rectangle. One corner at the position where you pressed the mouse button, the opposite corner following the pointer. As soon as you release the left mouse button, all vertices inside the rectangle are selected, all vertices outside the rectangle are deselected.

    Place the pointer outside any vertex, hold down the SHIFT key and press the left mouse button. Again you see a rubber band, however, now as soon as you release the mouse button, all vertices inside the rectangle are selected in addition to any other selected vertices.

    To select vertices from the GAP command window call the function SelectGroups with a subgroup or a list of subgroups to select.

    5.6 GraphicSubgroupLattice, Inserting Vertices

    To insert new vertices into a graphic sheet one has to use the following operation:

  • InsertVertex( sheet, grp, conj, hint )
  • InsertVertex( sheet, grp )

    Inserts the group grp as a new vertex into the sheet. If the lattice is not the subgroup lattice of a finitely presented group, it checks, if the group is already in the lattice or if there is already a conjugate subgroup. Further, the new vertex is sorted into the poset. So InsertVertex checks for all vertices on higher levels, whether the new vertex is contained, and for all vertices on lower levels, whether they are contained in the new vertex. It then tries to add edges to the appropriate vertices. If the lattice is the lattice of a finitely presented group, nothing is done with respect to the connections of any vertex. InsertVertex returns a list with the new vertex as first entry and a flag as second, which says, whether this vertex was inserted right now or has already been there.

    hint is a list of x coordinates which should give some hint for the choice of the new x coordinate. It can for example be the x coordinates of those groups which were parameter for the operation which calculated the group. hints can be empty but must always be a list!

    If conj is a vertex we put the new vertex into the class of this vertex. Otherwise conj should either be false or fail.

    You have access to the simpler form of the above functions via the Subgroups menu and the mouse. If you select InsertVertices from GAP in the Subgroups menu, the function InsertVertex is called for the group in the (automatic) variable last, or, if last contains a list of subgroups, for all of those subgroups. This is an easy way to insert results of calculations with GAP into the lattice. If last is neither a subgroup nor a list of subgroups, nothing happens.

    5.7 GraphicSubgroupLattice, Sheet Menu

    The Sheet menu will be pulled down if you place the pointer inside the Sheet button and press the left mouse button. Keep the button down and choose an entry by moving the pointer on top of this entry. Release the mouse button to select an entry.

  • save as postscript

    Selecting this entry pops up a file selector. If you enter a file name and click on OK, this will save a description of the graphic sheet and graphic objects on the sheet as encapsulated postscript output. This output should be imported easily into other documents.

  • close graphic sheet

    This entry will close the current graphic sheet and the window containing the sheet and all ``Information'' menus related to this sheet. On some window system or using some window manager the window itself has also a close button or menu entry. However, using the window close method will not close associated ``Information'' menus.

    5.8 GraphicSubgroupLattice, Poset Menu

    The Poset menu will be pulled down if you place the pointer inside the Poset button and press the left mouse button. Keep the button down and choose an entry by moving the pointer on top of this entry. Release the mouse button to select an entry.

    This menu is a generic menu for any graphic poset and is not specific to subgroup lattices. So you find here options for the handling of general posets.

  • Redraw

    The whole lattice will be redrawn. Use this option if some manipulation has disturbed the window.

  • Show Levels

    If this menu entry is activated (after clicking it will have a small check sign at its right, clicking again deactivates it), there will be a little blue box under each level at the left edge of the graphic sheet. You can use these little boxes to change the height of a level by moving it up or down like a vertex. In cases where the order of the levels is not given by some ``external source'' like the index of the subgroups you can move levels by moving the corresponding blue box with pressed SHIFT button.

  • Show Levelparameters

    This menu entry controls the display of the level parameters at the right edge of the graphic sheet. Normally these are displayed but you can switch it off with this menu entry.

  • Delete Vertices

    Selecting the entry will delete all selected vertices. All edges from or to one of these are also deleted. However, inclusion information is preserved. This means that new edges are created from all vertices which were maximal in the deleted one to all vertices in which the deleted vertex was maximal. So you get the Hasse diagram of the poset which is the restriction of the former one to the not selected vertices.

  • Delete Edge

    This menu entry is normally not selectable because it would destroy the Hasse diagram.

  • Merge Classes

    This menu entry merges all classes within each level that contain a selected vertex. Afterwards RearrangeClasses (see below) is performed. Use Merge Classes to unite classes within a level, but use it with care: No further test is performed! If you unite classes of subgroups that are not conjugate, other errors may follow, because conjugacy tests are later on only performed by looking at the first subgroup in a given class!

  • Magnify Lattice

    Selecting the entry will multiply the dimensions of the graphic sheet by the square root of 2 and enlarge the lattice accordingly.

  • Shrink Lattice

    Selecting the entry will divide the dimensions of the graphic sheet by the square root of 2 and shrink the lattice accordingly.

  • Resize Lattice

    Selecting this entry will pop up a dialog box asking for an x and y factor separated by a comma. You can enter integers or quotients. If you enter only one number this is used for x and y. The graphic sheet is then enlarged or shrinked and the lattice is resized accordingly.

  • Resize Sheet

    This entry is similar to Resize Lattice except that only the graphic sheet is changed, the lattice remains unchanged. The numbers you enter must be integers and mean pixel numbers.

  • Change Labels

    Selecting this entry will pop up a dialog box for each selected vertex asking for a new label. Clicking on CANCEL will cancel the relabelling of the remaining vertices but will not reset the already changed labels.

  • Average Y Positions

    Selecting this entry will average the y coordinates of all vertices belonging to the same level. For graphic subgroup lattices this means all subgroups with the same index in the whole group.

  • Average X Positions

    Selecting this entry will average the x coordinates of two or more selected vertices. This will only work if the corresponding subgroups do not have the same size and is used to align certain vertices vertically.

  • Rearrange Classes

    Selecting this entry will clean up all classes which contain a selected vertex. You need this option if you have moved a vertex without its class (holding down the SHIFT key). The vertices in a class are arranged one next to the other horizontally without changing the order of the x coordinates. So you can permute the vertices within a class carelessly and then again get a nice picture with the new order by selecting this menu entry.

  • Use Black&White

    Switches to black and white in case of a color screen or back to colors.

    5.9 GraphicSubgroupLattice, Subgroups Menu

    The Subgroups menu will be pulled down if you place the pointer inside the Subgroups button and press the left mouse button. Keep the button down and choose an entry by moving the pointer on top of this entry. Release the mouse button to select an entry.

    Note that you can also get the Subgroups menu as a popup menu by clicking with the right mouse button into the graphic sheet of the subgroup lattice, but not on a vertex.

    The result of a computation from any of the following entries is colored green, if your screen supports color. There will also be a short information message in the GAP window about the result.

    In the following descriptions we use ``vertices'' as abbreviation for ``subgroups associated with vertices''.

    The following descriptions do not apply to the case of finitely presented groups. See GraphicSubgroupLattice for FpGroups, Subgroups Menu for this case.

  • All Subgroups

    For each selected vertex All Subgroups computes and displays all its subgroups. Requires at least one selected vertex. Use with care! This can cause huge computations! See also LatticeSubgroups in the GAP reference manual.

  • Centralizers

    For each selected vertex Centralizers computes and displays its centralizer with respect to the whole group. Requires at least one selected vertex. See also Centralizer in the GAP reference manual.

  • Centres

    For each selected vertex Centres computes and displays its centre. Requires at least one selected vertex. See also Centre in the GAP reference manual.

  • Closure

    computes and displays the common closure of the selected vertices. Requires at least one selected vertex. See also ClosureGroup in the GAP reference manual.

  • Closures

    computes and displays the closure of each pair of selected vertices. Requires at least two selected vertices. See also ClosureGroup in the GAP reference manual.

  • Commutator Subgroups

    computes and displays the commutator subgroup of each pair of selected vertices. Requires at least two selected vertices. See also CommutatorSubgroup in the GAP reference manual.

  • Conjugate Subgroups

    computes and displays the conjugacy class (with respect to the whole group) of each selected vertex. Requires at least one selected vertex. See also ConjugacyClass in the GAP reference manual.

  • Cores

    For each selected vertex Cores computes and displays its core with respect to the whole group. Requires at least one selected vertex. See also Core in the GAP reference manual.

  • Derived Series

    For each selected vertex Derived Series computes and displays its derived series. Requires at least one selected vertex. See also DerivedSeriesOfGroup in the GAP reference manual.

  • Derived Subgroups

    For each selected vertex Derived Subgroups computes and displays its derived subgroup. Requires at least one selected vertex. See also DerivedSubgroup in the GAP reference manual.

  • Fitting Subgroups

    For each selected vertex Fitting Subgroups computes and displays its Fitting subgroup. Requires at least one selected vertex. See also FittingSubgroup in the GAP reference manual.

  • Intermediate Subgroups

    computes and displays all intermediate subgroups between two selected groups. Requires exactly two selected vertices. See also IntermediateSubgroups in the GAP reference manual.

  • Intersection

    computes and displays the common intersection of the selected vertices. Requires at least one selected vertex. See also Intersection in the GAP reference manual.

  • Intersections

    For each pair of selected vertices Intersections computes and displays the intersection of the two vertices. Requires at least two selected vertices. See also Intersection in the GAP reference manual.

  • Normalizers

    For each selected vertex Normalizers computes and displays its normalizer with respect to the whole group. Requires at least one selected vertex. See also Normalizer in the GAP reference manual.

  • Normal Closures

    For each selected vertex Normal Closure computes and displays its normal closure with respect to the whole group. Requires at least one selected vertex. See also NormalClosure in the GAP reference manual.

  • Normal Subgroups

    For each selected vertex Normal Subgroups computes and displays the normal subgroups of the subgroup associated with this vertex. These new subgroups are not necessarily normal in the whole group. Requires at least one selected vertex. See also NormalSubgroups in the GAP reference manual.

  • Sylow Subgroups

    pops up a dialog box asking for a prime. After entering a prime p and pressing return or clicking OK it computes and displays a Sylow p-subgroup for each selected vertex. Requires at least one selected vertex. See also SylowSubgroup in the GAP reference manual.

  • SelectedGroups to GAP

    If the user selects this menu entry, the subgroups belonging to the selected vertices are put into a list which is stored into the variable last. This is equivalent to the statement SelectedGroups(sheet);; if sheet contains the graphic sheet object. If XGAP logging is on, then the normal GAP logging via LogTo is also directed to the XGAP log file.

  • InsertVertices from GAP

    If the user selects this menu entry, the value of the variable last is used to insert new vertices into the graphic sheet. If last is equal to one subgroup, it is inserted via InsertVertex. If last is a list of subgroups, InsertVertex is called for all those subgroups. There is no error issued if one of the entries of last is no subgroup. If XGAP logging is on, then the normal GAP logging via LogTo is switched off! The idea of this is to switch the logging temporarily from XGAP logging to normal GAP logging between two clicks to SelectedGroups to GAP and InsertVertices from GAP respectively.

  • Start Logging

    After clicking on this menu entry the user is prompted for a filename. From this point on all commands issued via mouse clicks in the subgroup menu are logged into that file, such that one can afterwards see ``what happened'' in the XGAP session. The information displayed is the same as in the info displays in the GAP window.

  • Stop Logging

    A click onto this menu entry stops the XGAP logging.

    These menu entries represent only a small selection of the functions of GAP which the authors of XGAP considered most frequently used. You can calculate other subgroups like for example prefrattini subgroups from the GAP command window. See sections gapxgap and xgapgap for examples how to transfer information from the graphical lattice of XGAP to GAP (via SelectedGroups, see GraphicSubgroupLattice, Selecting Vertices) and vice versa (via SelectGroups, see GraphicSubgroupLattice, Selecting Vertices, and InsertVertex, see GraphicSubgroupLattice, Inserting Vertices).

    5.10 GraphicSubgroupLattice, Information Menu

    Note that this section does not deal with the case of a finitely presented group. See GraphicSubgroupLattice for FpGroups, Information Menu for this case.

    Placing the pointer inside a vertex (selected or not) and pressing the right mouse button pops up the ``Information'' menu. Clicking on any of the text lines will compute the corresponding property of the subgroup u associated with this vertex. Clicking on all will compute all properties, clicking on close will close the ``Information'' menu.

  • Size

    computes and displays the size of u. See also Size in the GAP reference manual.

  • Index

    computes and displays the index of u in the whole group. See also IndexInWholeGroup in the GAP reference manual.

  • IsAbelian

  • IsCyclic

  • IsNilpotent

  • IsPerfect

  • IsSimple

  • IsSolvable

    computes and displays the corresponding property of u. See also IsAbelian, IsCyclic, IsNilpotentGroup, IsPerfectGroup, IsSimpleGroup, and IsSolvableGroup in the GAP reference manual.

  • IsCentral

  • IsNormal

    computes and displays the corresponding property of u with respect to the whole group. See also IsCentral and IsNormal in the GAP reference manual.

  • Isomorphism

    computes and displays the isomorphism type of u. This will only work if the size of u is small. See IdGroup in the GAP reference manual for details.

    Note that the exact result of all these information displays is stored in the global variable LastResultOfInfoDisplay after each operation. So you can access this easily from the GAP command prompt. It is also returned as last value.

    5.11 Vertex Shapes

    The following vertex shapes can appear in an interactive lattice:

  • circle

    Subgroup is not normal in whole group.

  • diamond

    Subgroup is normal in whole group.

  • rectangle

    Subgroup has an index that is too big for automatic calculation of normality. So it is not yet known whether this group is normal.

    Automatic calculation is controlled by the following variable:

  • GGLLimitForIsNormalCalc V

    Only for subgroups with index smaller than this number an automatic IsNormal test is performed when the vertex is added to the sheet.

    5.12 GraphicSubgroupLattice for FpGroups, Subgroups Menu

    The Subgroups menu will be pulled down if you place the pointer inside the Subgroups button and press the left mouse button. Keep the button down and choose an entry by moving the pointer on top of this entry. Release the mouse button to select an entry.

    Note that you can also get the Subgroups menu as a popup menu by clicking with the right mouse button into the graphic sheet of the subgroup lattice, but not on a vertex.

    The result of a computation from any of the following entries is colored green, if your screen supports color. In most cases there will also be short information message in the GAP window about the result.

    Note that some of the menu entries make it necessary to compute presentations of subgroups using a modified Todd-Coxeter algorithm. This can be very time consuming and in some cases even impossible, if the index is too high.

    In the following descriptions, we use ``vertices'' as abbreviation for ``subgroups associated with vertices''.

  • Abelian Prime Quotient

    pops up a dialog box asking for a prime p. It then computes and displays the largest elementary abelian p quotient of the selected vertex. If no presentation for the subgroup associated to the vertex is known a presentation is first computed using a modified Todd-Coxeter algorithm. It then calls PrimeQuotient to compute the largest elementary abelian quotient. Abelian PrimeQuotient requires exactly one selected vertex.

  • All Overgroups

    computes and displays all overgroups of the selected vertex. It first computes the permutation action of the whole group on the cosets of the subgroup associated with the selected vertex and then searches for all block systems. If the subgroup of the selected vertex is normal, then everything is calculated within the (finite) factor group in a better representation. All Overgroups requires exactly one selected vertex.

  • Closure

    computes and displays the common closure of the selected vertices. Requires at least one selected vertex. See also ClosureGroup in the GAP reference manual.

  • Compare Subgroups

    A non-empty set of vertices must be selected to choose this menu entry. All subgroups belonging to these vertices are compared pairwise, and the inclusion information is displayed in the lattice. It may happen that two or more vertices are merged if GAP notices, that the subgroups are equal.

  • Conjugacy Class

    computes and displays the conjugacy class of the selected vertex. Conjugacy Class requires exactly one selected vertex.

  • Cores

    computes and displays the cores of the selected vertices. Cores requires at least one selected vertex.

  • Derived Subgroups

    computes and displays the derived subgroups of the selected vertices. If applied to a proper subgroup of the whole group it will only display those derived subgroups whose index is finite. Derived Subgroups requires at least one selected vertex.

  • Epimorphisms (GQuotients)

    pops up another menu. Requires exactly one selected vertex.

    Sym(n)
    Alt(n)
    PSL(d,q)
    Library
    User Defined 
    

    Click on any of these entries to try to find a quotient isomorphic to the symmetric group (Sym(n)), the alternating group (Alt(n)), the projective special linear group (PSL(d,q)), a group in a library supplied with XGAP (this will pop up a file selector), or a user defined group stored in the variable IMAGE_GROUP. After supplying additional parameters, for example, the degree of the symmetric group or the dimension and field of PSL using dialog boxes, the corresponding entry will change, for example to something like

    Sym(3)        3 found
    

    After one or more quotients were found click display to display them.

    Note that in XGAP4 in fact the kernel of the epimorphism is marked whereas in XGAP3 this was not the case, even though the XGAP3 manual stated this.

    In fact in XGAP3 a stabilizer of a permutation action on an orbit was put into the lattice.

    In case that the image of the epimorphism is a permutation group you can get this functionality by clicking on display point stabilizer instead of display.

  • Intermediate Subgroups

    computes and displays all intermediate subgroups between two selected groups. Requires exactly two selected vertices. See also IntermediateSubgroups in the GAP reference manual.

  • Intersection

    computes and displays the common intersection of the selected vertices. Requires at least one selected vertex. See also Intersection in the GAP reference manual.

  • Intersections

    computes and displays the pairwise intersections of the selected vertices. Intersections requires at least two selected vertices.

  • Low Index Subgroups

    pops up a dialog box asking for index limit k. It will then do a low index subgroup search for subgroups of index at most k of the selected vertex using LowIndexSubgroupsFpGroup. If no presentation for the subgroup associated to the vertex is known a presentation is first computed using a modified Todd-Coxeter algorithm. Low Index Subgroups requires exactly one selected vertex.

  • Normalizers

    computes and displays the normalizers of the selected vertices. Normalizers requires at least one selected vertex.

  • Prime Quotient

    pops up a dialog box asking for a prime p and another dialog box asking for a class c. It then computes and displays the largest p-quotient of class c of the selected vertex. If no presentation for the subgroup associated to the vertex is known a presentation is first computed using a modified Todd-Coxeter algorithm. It then calls PrimeQuotient. Prime Quotient requires exactly one selected vertex.

  • Test Conjugacy

    walks through all levels and tests for all pairs of classes, that contain a selected vertex, whether the groups in the classes are conjugates. If so, the classes are merged. After these calculations Rearrange Classes is called. Note that conjugacy calculations can take lots of time for finitely presented groups!

  • SelectedGroups to GAP

    If the user selects this menu entry, the subgroups belonging to the selected vertices are put into a list which is stored into the variable last. This is equivalent to the statement SelectedGroups(sheet);; if sheet contains the graphic sheet object. If XGAP logging is on, then the normal GAP logging via LogTo is also directed to the XGAP log file.

  • InsertVertices from GAP

    If the user selects this menu entry, the value of the variable last is used to insert new vertices into the graphic sheet. If last is equal to one subgroup, it is inserted via InsertVertex. If last is a list of subgroups, InsertVertex is called for all those subgroups. There is no error issued if one of the entries of last is no subgroup. If XGAP logging is on, then the normal GAP logging via LogTo is switched off! The idea of this is to switch the logging temporarily from XGAP logging to normal GAP logging between two clicks to ``SelectedGroups to GAP'' and ``InsertVertices from GAP'' respectively.

  • Start Logging

    After clicking on this menu entry the user is prompted for a filename. From this point on all commands issued via mouse clicks in the subgroup menu are logged into that file, such that one can afterwards see ``what happened'' in the XGAP session. The information displayed is the same as in the info displays in the GAP window.

  • Stop Logging

    A click onto this menu entry stops the XGAP logging.

    These menu entries represent only a small selection of the functions of GAP which the authors of XGAP considered most frequently used. You can calculate other subgroups from the GAP command window. See sections gapxgap and xgapgap for examples how to transfer information from the graphical lattice of XGAP to GAP (via SelectedGroups, see GraphicSubgroupLattice, Selecting Vertices) and vice versa (via SelectGroups, see GraphicSubgroupLattice, Selecting Vertices, and InsertVertex, see GraphicSubgroupLattice, Inserting Vertices).

    5.13 GraphicSubgroupLattice for FpGroups, Information Menu

    Placing the pointer inside a vertex (selected or not) and pressing the right mouse button pops up the ``Information'' menu. Clicking on any of the text lines will compute the corresponding property of the subgroup u associated with this vertex. Clicking on close will close the ``Information'' menu.

  • Index

    displays the index of u in the whole group.

  • IsNormal

    checks if u is normal in the whole group.

  • IsFpGroup

    checks if u is a finitely presented group. Note that a subgroup of a finitely presented group that is defined by a coset table or as kernel of an epimorphism is not automatically known to GAP as a finitely presented group. This means, that certain algorithms can not be applied. Use IsomorphismFpGroup (see IsomorphismFpGroup in the GAP reference manual) to calculate a finitely presented group and an isomorphism onto it, if some calculation does not work automatically.

  • Abelian Invariants

    computes and displays the abelian invariants of u.

  • Coset Table

    computes a coset table for u.

  • IsomorphismFpGroup

    computes a finitely presented group that is isomorphic to u and displays the number of generators and relators of it.

  • Factor Fp Group

    computes the factor group of the whole group by u, if u is normal.

    Note that the exact result of all these information displays is stored in the global variable LastResultOfInfoDisplay after each operation. So you can access this easily from the GAP command prompt. It is also returned as last value.

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    XGAP manual
    November 2016