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3 Basic operations with numerical semigroups
 3.1 Invariants
 3.2 Wilf's conjecture

3 Basic operations with numerical semigroups

3.1 Invariants

3.1-1 Multiplicity
‣ Multiplicity( NS )( attribute )
‣ MultiplicityOfNumericalSemigroup( NS )( attribute )

NS is a numerical semigroup. Returns the multiplicity of NS, which is the smallest positive integer belonging to NS.

gap> S := NumericalSemigroup("modular", 7,53);
<Modular numerical semigroup satisfying 7x mod 53 <= x >
gap> MultiplicityOfNumericalSemigroup(S);
8
gap> NumericalSemigroup(3,5);
<Numerical semigroup with 2 generators>
gap> Multiplicity(last);
3

3.1-2 GeneratorsOfNumericalSemigroup
‣ GeneratorsOfNumericalSemigroup( S )( attribute )
‣ Generators( S )( attribute )
‣ MinimalGeneratingSystemOfNumericalSemigroup( S )( attribute )
‣ MinimalGeneratingSystem( S )( attribute )
‣ MinimalGenerators( S )( attribute )

S is a numerical semigroup. GeneratorsOfNumericalSemigroup returns a set of generators of S, which may not be minimal. MinimalGeneratingSystemOfNumericalSemigroup returns the minimal set of generators of S.

From Version 0.980, ReducedSetOfGeneratorsOfNumericalSemigroup is a synonym of MinimalGeneratingSystemOfNumericalSemigroup; GeneratorsOfNumericalSemigroupNC is a synonym of GeneratorsOfNumericalSemigroup. The names are kept for compatibility with code produced for previous versions, but will be removed in the future.

gap> S := NumericalSemigroup("modular", 5,53);
<Modular numerical semigroup satisfying 5x mod 53 <= x >
gap> GeneratorsOfNumericalSemigroup(S);
[ 11, 12, 13, 32, 53 ]
gap> S := NumericalSemigroup(3, 5, 53);
<Numerical semigroup with 3 generators>
gap> GeneratorsOfNumericalSemigroup(S);
[ 3, 5, 53 ]
gap> MinimalGeneratingSystemOfNumericalSemigroup(S);
[ 3, 5 ]
gap> MinimalGeneratingSystem(S)=MinimalGeneratingSystemOfNumericalSemigroup(S);
true
gap> s := NumericalSemigroup(3,5,7,15);
<Numerical semigroup with 4 generators>
gap> HasGenerators(s);
true
gap> HasMinimalGenerators(s);
false
gap> MinimalGenerators(s);
[ 3, 5, 7 ]
gap> Generators(s);
[ 3, 5, 7, 15 ]

3.1-3 EmbeddingDimension
‣ EmbeddingDimension( NS )( attribute )
‣ EmbeddingDimensionOfNumericalSemigroup( NS )( attribute )

NS is a numerical semigroup. It returns the cardinality of its minimal generating system.

gap> s := NumericalSemigroup(3,5,7,15);
<Numerical semigroup with 4 generators>
gap> EmbeddingDimension(s);
3
gap> EmbeddingDimensionOfNumericalSemigroup(s);
3

3.1-4 SmallElements
‣ SmallElements( NS )( attribute )
‣ SmallElementsOfNumericalSemigroup( NS )( attribute )

NS is a numerical semigroup. It returns the list of small elements of NS. Of course, the time consumed to return a result may depend on the way the semigroup is given.

gap> SmallElementsOfNumericalSemigroup(NumericalSemigroup(3,5,7));
[ 0, 3, 5 ]
gap> SmallElements(NumericalSemigroup(3,5,7));
[ 0, 3, 5 ]

3.1-5 FirstElementsOfNumericalSemigroup
‣ FirstElementsOfNumericalSemigroup( n, NS )( function )

NS is a numerical semigroup. It returns the list with the first n elements of NS.

gap> FirstElementsOfNumericalSemigroup(2,NumericalSemigroup(3,5,7));
[ 0, 3 ]
gap> FirstElementsOfNumericalSemigroup(10,NumericalSemigroup(3,5,7));
[ 0, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 ]

3.1-6 RthElementOfNumericalSemigroup
‣ RthElementOfNumericalSemigroup( S, r )( operation )

S is a numerical semigroup and r is an integer. It returns the r-th element of S.

gap> S := NumericalSemigroup(7,8,17);;
gap> RthElementOfNumericalSemigroup(S,53);
68

3.1-7 \[ \]
‣ \[ \]( S, r )( operation )

S is a numerical semigroup and r is an integer. It returns the r-th element of S.

gap> S := NumericalSemigroup(7,8,17);;
gap> S[53];
68

3.1-8 \{ \}
‣ \{ \}( S, ls )( operation )

S is a numerical semigroup and ls is a list of integers. It returns the list [S[r] : r in ls].

gap> S := NumericalSemigroup(7,8,17);;
gap> S{[1..5]};
[ 0, 7, 8, 14, 15 ]

3.1-9 NextElementOfNumericalSemigroup
‣ NextElementOfNumericalSemigroup( S, r )( operation )

S is a numerical semigroup and r is an integer. It returns the returns the least integer greater than r belonging to S.

gap> S := NumericalSemigroup(7,8,17);;
gap> NextElementOfNumericalSemigroup(S,9);
14
gap> NextElementOfNumericalSemigroup(16,S);
17
gap> NextElementOfNumericalSemigroup(S,FrobeniusNumber(S))=Conductor(S);
true

3.1-10 ElementNumber_NumericalSemigroup
‣ ElementNumber_NumericalSemigroup( S, r )( function )

S is a numerical semigroup and r is an integer. It returns the r-th element of S.

gap> S := NumericalSemigroup(7,8,17);;
gap> ElementNumber_NumericalSemigroup(S,53);
68

3.1-11 NumberElement_NumericalSemigroup
‣ NumberElement_NumericalSemigroup( S, r )( function )

S is a numerical semigroup and r is an integer. It returns the position of r in S (and fail if the integer is not in the semigroup).

gap> S := NumericalSemigroup(7,8,17);;
gap> NumberElement_NumericalSemigroup(S,68);
53

3.1-12 Iterator
‣ Iterator( S )( operation )

S is a numerical semigroup. It returns an iterator over S.

gap> S := NumericalSemigroup(7,8,17);;
gap> iter:=Iterator(S);
<iterator>
gap> NextIterator(iter);
0
gap> NextIterator(iter);
7
gap> NextIterator(iter);
8

3.1-13 AperyList
‣ AperyList( S, n )( attribute )
‣ AperyListOfNumericalSemigroupWRTElement( S, n )( operation )

S is a numerical semigroup and n is a positive element of S. Computes the Apéry list of S with respect to n. It contains for every i∈ {0,...,n-1}, in the i+1th position, the smallest element in the semigroup congruent with i modulo n.

gap> S := NumericalSemigroup("modular", 5,53);;
gap> AperyListOfNumericalSemigroupWRTElement(S,12);
[ 0, 13, 26, 39, 52, 53, 54, 43, 32, 33, 22, 11 ]
gap> AperyList(S,12);
[ 0, 13, 26, 39, 52, 53, 54, 43, 32, 33, 22, 11 ]

3.1-14 AperyList
‣ AperyList( S )( attribute )
‣ AperyListOfNumericalSemigroup( S )( attribute )

S is a numerical semigroup. It computes the Apéry list of S with respect to the multiplicity of S.

gap> S := NumericalSemigroup("modular", 5,53);;
gap> AperyListOfNumericalSemigroup(S);
[ 0, 12, 13, 25, 26, 38, 39, 51, 52, 53, 32 ]
gap> AperyList(NumericalSemigroup(5,7,11));
[ 0, 11, 7, 18, 14 ]

3.1-15 AperyList
‣ AperyList( S, n )( attribute )
‣ AperyListOfNumericalSemigroupWRTInteger( S, m )( function )

S is a numerical semigroup and m is an integer. Computes the Apéry list of S with respect to m, that is, the set of elements x in S such that x-m is not in S. If m is an element in S, then the output of AperyListOfNumericalSemigroupWRTInteger, as sets, is the same as AperyListOfNumericalSemigroupWRTElement, though without side effects, in the sense that this information is no longer used by the package. The output of AperyList is the same as AperyListOfNumericalSemigroupWRTElement.

gap>  s:=NumericalSemigroup(10,13,19,27);;
gap> AperyListOfNumericalSemigroupWRTInteger(s,11);
[ 0, 10, 13, 19, 20, 23, 26, 27, 29, 32, 33, 36, 39, 42, 45, 46, 52, 55 ]
gap> AperyList(s,11);
[ 0, 10, 13, 19, 20, 23, 26, 27, 29, 32, 33, 36, 39, 42, 45, 46, 52, 55 ]
gap> Length(last);
18
gap> AperyListOfNumericalSemigroupWRTInteger(s,10);
[ 0, 13, 19, 26, 27, 32, 38, 45, 51, 54 ]
gap> AperyListOfNumericalSemigroupWRTElement(s,10);
[ 0, 51, 32, 13, 54, 45, 26, 27, 38, 19 ]
gap> Length(last);
10
gap> AperyList(s,10);
[ 0, 51, 32, 13, 54, 45, 26, 27, 38, 19 ]

3.1-16 AperyListOfNumericalSemigroupAsGraph
‣ AperyListOfNumericalSemigroupAsGraph( ap )( function )

ap is the Apéry list of a numerical semigroup. This function returns the adjacency list of the graph (ap, E) where the edge u -> v is in E iff v - u is in ap. The 0 is ignored.

gap> s:=NumericalSemigroup(3,7);;
gap> AperyListOfNumericalSemigroupWRTElement(s,10);
[ 0, 21, 12, 3, 14, 15, 6, 7, 18, 9 ]
gap> AperyListOfNumericalSemigroupAsGraph(last);
[ ,, [ 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 ],,, [ 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 ],
[ 7, 14, 21 ],, [ 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 ],,, [ 12, 15, 18, 21 ],,
[ 14, 21 ], [ 15, 18, 21 ],,, [ 18, 21 ],,, [ 21 ] ]

3.1-17 KunzCoordinatesOfNumericalSemigroup
‣ KunzCoordinatesOfNumericalSemigroup( S, m )( function )

S is a numerical semigroup, and m is a nonzero element of S. The second argument is optional, and if missing it is assumed to be the multiplicity of S.

Then the Apéry set of m in S has the form [0,k_1m+1,...,k_m-1m+m-1], and the output is the (m-1)-uple [k_1,k_2,...,k_m-1]

gap> s:=NumericalSemigroup(3,5,7);
<Numerical semigroup with 3 generators>
gap> KunzCoordinatesOfNumericalSemigroup(s);
[ 2, 1 ]
gap> KunzCoordinatesOfNumericalSemigroup(s,5);
[ 1, 1, 0, 1 ]

3.1-18 KunzPolytope
‣ KunzPolytope( m )( function )

m is a positive integer.

The Kunz coordinates of the semigroups with multiplicity m are solutions of a system of inequalities Axge b (see [CAGGB02]). The output is the matrix (A|-b).

gap> KunzPolytope(3);
[ [ 1, 0, -1 ], [ 0, 1, -1 ], [ 2, -1, 0 ], [ -1, 2, 1 ] ]

3.1-19 CocycleOfNumericalSemigroupWRTElement
‣ CocycleOfNumericalSemigroupWRTElement( S, m )( function )

S is a numerical semigroup, and m is a nonzero element of S. The output is the matrix h(i,j)=(w(i)+w(j)-w((i+j)mod m))/m, where w(i) is the smallest element in S congruent with i modulo m (and thus it is in the Apéry set of m), [GSHKR17].

gap> s:=NumericalSemigroup(3,5,7);;
gap> CocycleOfNumericalSemigroupWRTElement(s,3);
[ [ 0, 0, 0 ], [ 0, 3, 4 ], [ 0, 4, 1 ] ]

3.1-20 FrobeniusNumber
‣ FrobeniusNumber( NS )( attribute )
‣ FrobeniusNumberOfNumericalSemigroup( NS )( attribute )

The largest nonnegative integer not belonging to a numerical semigroup S is the Frobenius number of S. If S is the set of nonnegative integers, then clearly its Frobenius number is -1, otherwise its Frobenius number coincides with the maximum of the gaps (or fundamental gaps) of S.

NS is a numerical semigroup. It returns the Frobenius number of NS. Of course, the time consumed to return a result may depend on the way the semigroup is given or on the knowledge already produced on the semigroup.

gap> FrobeniusNumberOfNumericalSemigroup(NumericalSemigroup(3,5,7));
4
gap> FrobeniusNumber(NumericalSemigroup(3,5,7));
4

3.1-21 Conductor
‣ Conductor( NS )( attribute )
‣ ConductorOfNumericalSemigroup( NS )( attribute )

This is just a synonym of FrobeniusNumberOfNumericalSemigroup (NS)+1.

gap> ConductorOfNumericalSemigroup(NumericalSemigroup(3,5,7));
5
gap> Conductor(NumericalSemigroup(3,5,7));
5

3.1-22 PseudoFrobeniusOfNumericalSemigroup
‣ PseudoFrobeniusOfNumericalSemigroup( S )( attribute )

An integer z is a pseudo-Frobenius number of S if z+S∖{0}⊆ S.

S is a numerical semigroup. It returns set of pseudo-Frobenius numbers of S.

gap> S := NumericalSemigroup("modular", 5,53);
<Modular numerical semigroup satisfying 5x mod 53 <= x >
gap> PseudoFrobeniusOfNumericalSemigroup(S);
[ 21, 40, 41, 42 ]

3.1-23 TypeOfNumericalSemigroup
‣ TypeOfNumericalSemigroup( NS )( attribute )

Stands for Length(PseudoFrobeniusOfNumericalSemigroup (NS)).

gap> S := NumericalSemigroup("modular", 5,53);
<Modular numerical semigroup satisfying 5x mod 53 <= x >
gap> Type(S);
4
gap> TypeOfNumericalSemigroup(S);
4

3.1-24 Gaps
‣ Gaps( NS )( attribute )
‣ GapsOfNumericalSemigroup( NS )( attribute )

A gap of a numerical semigroup S is a nonnegative integer not belonging to S. NS is a numerical semigroup. Both return the set of gaps of NS.

gap> GapsOfNumericalSemigroup(NumericalSemigroup(3,5,7));
[ 1, 2, 4 ]
gap> Gaps(NumericalSemigroup(5,7,11));
[ 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 13 ]

3.1-25 DesertsOfNumericalSemigroup
‣ DesertsOfNumericalSemigroup( NS )( function )

NS is a numerical semigroup. The output is the list with the runs of gaps of NS.

gap> s:=NumericalSemigroup(3,5,7);;
gap> DesertsOfNumericalSemigroup(s);
[ [ 1, 2 ], [ 4 ] ]

3.1-26 IsOrdinaryNumericalSemigroup
‣ IsOrdinaryNumericalSemigroup( NS )( property )
‣ IsOrdinary( NS )( property )

NS is a numerical semigroup. Dectects if the semigroup is ordinary, that is, with less than two deserts.

This filter implies IsAcuteNumericalSemigroup (3.1-27).

gap> s:=NumericalSemigroup(3,5,7);;
gap> IsOrdinary(s);
false

3.1-27 IsAcuteNumericalSemigroup
‣ IsAcuteNumericalSemigroup( NS )( property )
‣ IsAcute( NS )( property )

NS is a numerical semigroup. Dectects if the semigroup is acute, that is, it is either ordinary or its last desert (the one with the Frobenius number) has less elements than the preceding one ([BA04]).

gap> s:=NumericalSemigroup(3,5,7);;
gap> IsAcute(s);
true

3.1-28 Holes
‣ Holes( NS )( attribute )
‣ HolesOfNumericalSemigroup( S )( attribute )

S is a numerical semigroup. Returns the set of gaps x of S such that F(S)-x is also a gap, where F(S) stands for the Frobenius number of S.

gap> s:=NumericalSemigroup(3,5);;
gap> Holes(s);
[  ]
gap> s:=NumericalSemigroup(3,5,7);;
gap> HolesOfNumericalSemigroup(s);
[ 2 ]

3.1-29 LatticePathAssociatedToNumericalSemigroup
‣ LatticePathAssociatedToNumericalSemigroup( S, p, q )( attribute )

S is a numerical semigroup and p,q are two elements in S.

In this setting S is an oversemigroup of ⟨ p,q⟩, and consequently every gap of S is a gap of ⟨ p,q⟩. If c is the conductor of ⟨ p,q⟩, then every gap g of ⟨ p,q⟩ can be written uniquely as g=c-1-(ap+bp) for some nonnegative integers a,b. We say that (a,b) are the coordinates associated to g.

The output is a path in N^2 such that coordinates of the gaps of S correspond exactly with the points in N^2 that are between the path in the line ax+by=c-1. See [KW14].

gap> s:=NumericalSemigroup(16,17,71,72);;
gap> LatticePathAssociatedToNumericalSemigroup(s,16,17);
[ [ 0, 14 ], [ 1, 13 ], [ 2, 12 ], [ 3, 11 ], [ 4, 10 ], [ 5, 9 ], [ 6, 8 ],
  [ 7, 7 ], [ 8, 6 ], [ 9, 5 ], [ 10, 4 ], [ 11, 3 ], [ 12, 2 ], [ 13, 1 ],
  [ 14, 0 ] ]

3.1-30 Genus
‣ Genus( NS )( attribute )
‣ GenusOfNumericalSemigroup( NS )( attribute )

NS is a numerical semigroup. It returns the number of gaps of NS.

gap> s:=NumericalSemigroup(16,17,71,72);;
gap> GenusOfNumericalSemigroup(s);
80
gap> S := NumericalSemigroup("modular", 5,53);
<Modular numerical semigroup satisfying 5x mod 53 <= x >
gap> Genus(S);
26

3.1-31 FundamentalGaps
‣ FundamentalGaps( S )( attribute )
‣ FundamentalGapsOfNumericalSemigroup( S )( attribute )

S The fundamental gaps of S are those gaps that are maximal with respect to the partial order induced by division in N. is a numerical semigroup. It returns the set of fundamental gaps of S.

gap> S := NumericalSemigroup("modular", 5,53);
<Modular numerical semigroup satisfying 5x mod 53 <= x >
gap> FundamentalGapsOfNumericalSemigroup(S);
[ 16, 17, 18, 19, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 40, 41, 42 ]
gap> GapsOfNumericalSemigroup(S);
[ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 27, 28, 29,
  30, 31, 40, 41, 42 ]
gap> Gaps(NumericalSemigroup(5,7,11));
[ 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 13 ]
gap> FundamentalGaps(NumericalSemigroup(5,7,11));
[ 6, 8, 9, 13 ]

3.1-32 SpecialGaps
‣ SpecialGaps( S )( attribute )
‣ SpecialGapsOfNumericalSemigroup( S )( attribute )

The special gaps of a numerical semigroup S, are those fundamental gaps such that if they are added to the given numerical semigroup, then the resulting set is again a numerical semigroup. S is a numerical semigroup. It returns the special gaps of S.

gap> S := NumericalSemigroup("modular", 5,53);
<Modular numerical semigroup satisfying 5x mod 53 <= x >
gap> SpecialGaps(S);
[ 40, 41, 42 ]
gap> SpecialGapsOfNumericalSemigroup(S);
[ 40, 41, 42 ]

3.2 Wilf's conjecture

Let S be a numerical semigroup, with conductor c and embedding dimension e. Denote by l the cardinality of the set of elements in S smaller than c. Wilf in [Wil78] asked whether or not l/cge 1/e for all numerical semigroups. In this section we give some functions to experiment with this conjecture, as defined in [Eli15].

3.2-1 WilfNumber
‣ WilfNumber( S )( attribute )
‣ WilfNumberOfNumericalSemigroup( S )( attribute )

S is a numerical semigroup. Let c, e and l be the conductor, embedding dimension and number of elements smaller than c in S. Returns e l-c, which was conjetured by Wilf to be nonnegative.

gap> l:=NumericalSemigroupsWithGenus(10);;
gap> Filtered(l, s->WilfNumberOfNumericalSemigroup(s)<0); 
[  ]
gap> Maximum(Set(l, s->WilfNumberOfNumericalSemigroup(s)));
70
gap> s := NumericalSemigroup(13,25,37);;
gap> WilfNumber(s);                     
96

3.2-2 EliahouNumber
‣ EliahouNumber( S )( attribute )
‣ TruncatedWilfNumberOfNumericalSemigroup( S )( attribute )

S is a numerical semigroup. Let c, m, s and l be the conductor, multiplicity, number of generators smaller than c, and number of elements smaller than c in S, respectively. Let q and r be the quotient and negative remainder of the division of c by m, that is, c=qm-r. Returns s l-qd_q+r, where d_q corresponds with the number of integers in [c,c+m[ that are not minimal generators of S.

gap> s:=NumericalSemigroup(5,7,9);;
gap> TruncatedWilfNumberOfNumericalSemigroup(s);
4
gap> s:=NumericalSemigroupWithGivenElementsAndFrobenius([14,22,23],55);;
gap> EliahouNumber(s);
-1

3.2-3 ProfileOfNumericalSemigroup
‣ ProfileOfNumericalSemigroup( S )( attribute )

S is a numerical semigroup. Let c and m be the conductor and multiplicity of S, respectively. Let q and r be the quotient and nonpositive remainder of the division of c by m, that is, c=qm-r. Returns a list of lists of integers, each list is the cardinality of S ∩ [jm-r, (j+1)m-r[ with j in [1..q-1].

gap> s:=NumericalSemigroup(5,7,9);;
gap> ProfileOfNumericalSemigroup(s);
[ 2, 1 ]
gap> s:=NumericalSemigroupWithGivenElementsAndFrobenius([14,22,23],55);;
gap> ProfileOfNumericalSemigroup(s);
[ 3, 0, 0 ]

3.2-4 EliahouSlicesOfNumericalSemigroup
‣ EliahouSlicesOfNumericalSemigroup( S )( attribute )

S is a numerical semigroup. Let c and m be the conductor and multiplicity of S, respectively. Let q and r be the quotient and negative remainder of the division of c by m, that is, c=qm-r. Returns a list of lists of integers, each list is the set S ∩ [jm-r, (j+1)m-r[ with j in [1..q]. So this is a partition of the set of small elements of S (without 0).

gap> s:=NumericalSemigroup(5,7,9);;                                     
gap> EliahouSlicesOfNumericalSemigroup(s);
[ [ 5, 7 ], [ 9, 10, 12 ] ]
gap> SmallElements(s);
[ 0, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 14 ]
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