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### 3 2d-mappings

#### 3.1 Morphisms of 2-dimensional groups

This chapter describes morphisms of (pre-)crossed modules and (pre-)cat1-groups.

##### 3.1-1 Source
 ‣ Source( map ) ( attribute )
 ‣ Range( map ) ( attribute )
 ‣ SourceHom( map ) ( attribute )
 ‣ RangeHom( map ) ( attribute )

Morphisms of 2-dimensional groups are implemented as 2-dimensional mappings. These have a pair of 2-dimensional groups as source and range, together with two group homomorphisms mapping between corresponding source and range groups. These functions return fail when invalid data is supplied.

#### 3.2 Morphisms of pre-crossed modules

##### 3.2-1 IsXModMorphism
 ‣ IsXModMorphism( map ) ( property )
 ‣ IsPreXModMorphism( map ) ( property )

A morphism between two pre-crossed modules mathcalX_1 = (∂_1 : S_1 -> R_1) and mathcalX_2 = (∂_2 : S_2 -> R_2) is a pair (σ, ρ), where σ : S_1 -> S_2 and ρ : R_1 -> R_2 commute with the two boundary maps and are morphisms for the two actions:

\partial_2 \circ \sigma ~=~ \rho \circ \partial_1, \qquad \sigma(s^r) ~=~ (\sigma s)^{\rho r}.

Here σ is the SourceHom (3.1-1) and ρ is the RangeHom (3.1-1) of the morphism. When mathcalX_1 = mathcalX_2 and σ, ρ are automorphisms then (σ, ρ) is an automorphism of mathcalX_1. The group of automorphisms is denoted by Aut(mathcalX_1 ).

##### 3.2-2 IsInjective
 ‣ IsInjective( map ) ( method )
 ‣ IsSurjective( map ) ( method )
 ‣ IsSingleValued( map ) ( method )
 ‣ IsTotal( map ) ( method )
 ‣ IsBijective( map ) ( method )
 ‣ IsEndo2DimensionalMapping( map ) ( property )

The usual properties of mappings are easily checked. It is usually sufficient to verify that both the SourceHom (3.1-1) and the RangeHom (3.1-1) have the required property.

##### 3.2-3 XModMorphism
 ‣ XModMorphism( args ) ( function )
 ‣ XModMorphismByHoms( X1, X2, sigma, rho ) ( operation )
 ‣ PreXModMorphism( args ) ( function )
 ‣ PreXModMorphismByHoms( P1, P2, sigma, rho ) ( operation )
 ‣ InclusionMorphism2DimensionalDomains( X1, S1 ) ( operation )
 ‣ InnerAutomorphismXMod( X1, r ) ( operation )
 ‣ IdentityMapping( X1 ) ( attribute )

These are the constructors for morphisms of pre-crossed and crossed modules.

In the following example we construct a simple automorphism of the crossed module X1 constructed in the previous chapter.


gap> sigma1 := GroupHomomorphismByImages( c5, c5, [ (5,6,7,8,9) ]
[ (5,9,8,7,6) ] );;
gap> rho1 := IdentityMapping( Range( X1 ) );
IdentityMapping( PAut(c5) )
gap> mor1 := XModMorphism( X1, X1, sigma1, rho1 );
[[c5->Aut(c5))] => [c5->Aut(c5))]]
gap> Display( mor1 );
Morphism of crossed modules :-
: Source = [c5->Aut(c5)] with generating sets:
[ (5,6,7,8,9) ]
[ GroupHomomorphismByImages( c5, c5, [ (5,6,7,8,9) ], [ (5,7,9,6,8) ] ) ]
: Range = Source
: Source Homomorphism maps source generators to:
[ (5,9,8,7,6) ]
: Range Homomorphism maps range generators to:
[ GroupHomomorphismByImages( c5, c5, [ (5,6,7,8,9) ], [ (5,7,9,6,8) ] ) ]
gap> IsAutomorphism2DimensionalDomain( mor1 );
true
gap> Order( mor1 );
2
gap> RepresentationsOfObject( mor1 );
[ "IsComponentObjectRep", "IsAttributeStoringRep", "Is2DimensionalMappingRep" ]
gap> KnownPropertiesOfObject( mor1 );
[ "CanEasilyCompareElements", "CanEasilySortElements", "IsTotal",
"IsSingleValued", "IsInjective", "IsSurjective", "RespectsMultiplication",
"IsPreXModMorphism", "IsXModMorphism", "IsEndomorphism2DimensionalDomain",
"IsAutomorphism2DimensionalDomain" ]
gap> KnownAttributesOfObject( mor1 );
[ "Name", "Order", "Range", "Source", "SourceHom", "RangeHom" ]



##### 3.2-4 IsomorphismPerm2DimensionalGroup
 ‣ IsomorphismPerm2DimensionalGroup( obj ) ( attribute )
 ‣ IsomorphismPc2DimensionalGroup( obj ) ( attribute )
 ‣ IsomorphismByIsomorphisms( D, list ) ( operation )

When mathcal D is a 2-dimensional domain with source S and range R and σ : S -> S',~ ρ : R -> R' are isomorphisms, then IsomorphismByIsomorphisms(D,[sigma,rho]) returns an isomorphism (σ,ρ) : mathcal D -> mathcal D' where mathcal D' has source S' and range R'. Be sure to test IsBijective for the two functions σ,ρ before applying this operation.

Using IsomorphismByIsomorphisms with a pair of isomorphisms obtained using IsomorphismPermGroup or IsomorphismPcGroup, we may construct a crossed module or a cat1-group of permutation groups or pc-groups.


gap> q8 := SmallGroup(8,4);;   ## quaternion group
gap> Xq8 := XModByAutomorphismGroup( q8 );
[Group( [ f1, f2, f3 ] )->Group( [ f1, f2, f3, f4 ] )]
gap> iso := IsomorphismPerm2DimensionalGroup( Xq8 );;
gap> Yq8 := Image( iso );
[Group( [ (1,2,4,6)(3,8,7,5), (1,3,4,7)(2,5,6,8), (1,4)(2,6)(3,7)(5,8)
] )->Group( [ (2,6,5,4), (1,2,4)(3,5,6), (2,5)(4,6), (1,3)(2,5) ] )]
gap> s4 := SymmetricGroup(4);;
gap> isos4 := IsomorphismGroups( Range(Yq8), s4 );;
gap> id := IdentityMapping( Source( Yq8 ) );;
gap> IsBijective( id );;  IsBijective( isos4 );;
gap> mor := IsomorphismByIsomorphisms( Yq8, [id,isos4] );;
gap> Zq8 := Image( mor );
[Group( [ (1,2,4,6)(3,8,7,5), (1,3,4,7)(2,5,6,8), (1,4)(2,6)(3,7)(5,8)
] )->SymmetricGroup( [ 1 .. 4 ] )]



#### 3.3 Morphisms of pre-cat1-groups

A morphism of pre-cat1-groups from mathcalC_1 = (e_1;t_1,h_1 : G_1 -> R_1) to mathcalC_2 = (e_2;t_2,h_2 : G_2 -> R_2) is a pair (γ, ρ) where γ : G_1 -> G_2 and ρ : R_1 -> R_2 are homomorphisms satisfying

h_2 \circ \gamma ~=~ \rho \circ h_1, \qquad t_2 \circ \gamma ~=~ \rho \circ t_1, \qquad e_2 \circ \rho ~=~ \gamma \circ e_1.

##### 3.3-1 IsCat1Morphism
 ‣ IsCat1Morphism( map ) ( property )
 ‣ IsPreCat1Morphism( map ) ( property )
 ‣ Cat1Morphism( args ) ( function )
 ‣ Cat1MorphismByHoms( C1, C2, gamma, rho ) ( operation )
 ‣ PreCat1Morphism( args ) ( function )
 ‣ PreCat1MorphismByHoms( P1, P2, gamma, rho ) ( operation )
 ‣ InclusionMorphism2DimensionalDomains( C1, S1 ) ( operation )
 ‣ InnerAutomorphismCat1( C1, r ) ( operation )
 ‣ IdentityMapping( C1 ) ( attribute )

For an example we form a second cat1-group C2=[g18=>s3a], similar to C1 in 2.4-1, then construct an isomorphism (γ,ρ) between them.


gap> t2 := GroupHomomorphismByImages(g18,s3a,g18gens,[(),(7,8,9),(8,9)]);;
gap> e2 := GroupHomomorphismByImages(s3a,g18,s3agens,[(4,5,6),(2,3)(5,6)]);;
gap> C2 := Cat1Group( t2, h1, e2 );;
gap> imgamma := [ (4,5,6), (1,2,3), (2,3)(5,6) ];;
gap> gamma := GroupHomomorphismByImages( g18, g18, g18gens, imgamma );;
gap> rho := IdentityMapping( s3a );;
gap> mor := Cat1Morphism( C1, C2, gamma, rho );;
gap> Display( mor );;
Morphism of cat1-groups :-
: Source = [g18=>s3a] with generating sets:
[ (1,2,3), (4,5,6), (2,3)(5,6) ]
[ (7,8,9), (8,9) ]
:  Range = [g18=>s3a] with generating sets:
[ (1,2,3), (4,5,6), (2,3)(5,6) ]
[ (7,8,9), (8,9) ]
: Source Homomorphism maps source generators to:
[ (4,5,6), (1,2,3), (2,3)(5,6) ]
: Range Homomorphism maps range generators to:
[ (7,8,9), (8,9) ]



##### 3.3-2 IsomorphismPermObject
 ‣ IsomorphismPermObject( obj ) ( function )
 ‣ IsomorphismPerm2DimensionalGroup( 2DimensionalGroup ) ( attribute )
 ‣ IsomorphismFp2DimensionalGroup( 2DimensionalGroup ) ( attribute )
 ‣ IsomorphismPc2DimensionalGroup( 2DimensionalGroup ) ( attribute )
 ‣ SmallerDegreePerm2DimensionalDomain( 2DimensionalDomain ) ( function )

The global function IsomorphismPermObject calls IsomorphismPerm2DimensionalGroup, which constructs a morphism whose SourceHom (3.1-1) and RangeHom (3.1-1) are calculated using IsomorphismPermGroup on the source and range. Similarly the operation SmallerDegreePermutationRepresentation may be used on the two groups to obtain the attribute SmallerDegreePerm2DimensionalDomain. Names are assigned automatically.


gap> iso2 := IsomorphismPerm2DimensionalGroup( C2 );
[[G2=>d12] => [..]]
gap> Display( iso2 );
Morphism of cat1-groups :-
: Source = [G2=>d12] with generating sets:
[ f1, f2, f3, f4, f5, f6, f7 ]
[ f1, f2, f3 ]
:  Range = P[G2=>d12] with generating sets:
[ ( 6,12)( 8,15)( 9,16)(11,19)(13,26)(14,22)(17,27)(18,25)(20,21)(23,24),
( 2, 3)( 5,10)( 9,16)(11,18)(17,23)(19,25)(24,27),
( 4, 5, 7,10)( 6, 9,12,16)( 8,11,14,18)(13,17,20,23)(15,19,22,25)
(21,24,26,27), ( 4, 6, 7,12)( 5, 9,10,16)( 8,13,14,20)(11,17,18,23)
(15,21,22,26)(19,24,25,27), ( 4, 7)( 5,10)( 6,12)( 8,14)( 9,16)(11,18)
(13,20)(15,22)(17,23)(19,25)(21,26)(24,27), ( 1, 2, 3),
( 4, 8,15)( 5,11,19)( 6,13,21)( 7,14,22)( 9,17,24)(10,18,25)(12,20,26)
(16,23,27) ]
[ (2,6)(3,5), (1,2,3,4,5,6), (1,3,5)(2,4,6) ]
: Source Homomorphism maps source generators to:
[ ( 6,12)( 8,15)( 9,16)(11,19)(13,26)(14,22)(17,27)(18,25)(20,21)(23,24),
( 2, 3)( 5,10)( 9,16)(11,18)(17,23)(19,25)(24,27),
( 4, 5, 7,10)( 6, 9,12,16)( 8,11,14,18)(13,17,20,23)(15,19,22,25)
(21,24,26,27), ( 4, 6, 7,12)( 5, 9,10,16)( 8,13,14,20)(11,17,18,23)
(15,21,22,26)(19,24,25,27), ( 4, 7)( 5,10)( 6,12)( 8,14)( 9,16)(11,18)
(13,20)(15,22)(17,23)(19,25)(21,26)(24,27), ( 1, 2, 3),
( 4, 8,15)( 5,11,19)( 6,13,21)( 7,14,22)( 9,17,24)(10,18,25)(12,20,26)
(16,23,27) ]
: Range Homomorphism maps range generators to:
[ (2,6)(3,5), (1,2,3,4,5,6), (1,3,5)(2,4,6) ]



#### 3.4 Operations on morphisms

##### 3.4-1 CompositionMorphism
 ‣ CompositionMorphism( map2, map1 ) ( operation )

Composition of morphisms (written (<map1> * <map2>) when maps act on the right) calls the CompositionMorphism function for maps (acting on the left), applied to the appropriate type of 2d-mapping.


gap> H2 := Subgroup(G2,[G2.3,G2.4,G2.6,G2.7]);  SetName( H2, "H2" );
Group([ f3, f4, f6, f7 ])
gap> c6 := Subgroup( d12, [b,c] );  SetName( c6, "c6" );
Group([ f2, f3 ])
gap> SC2 := Sub2DimensionalGroup( C2, H2, c6 );
[H2=>c6]
gap> IsCat1Group( SC2 );
true
gap> inc2 := InclusionMorphism2DimensionalDomains( C2, SC2 );
[[H2=>c6] => [G2=>d12]]
gap> CompositionMorphism( iso2, inc );
[[H2=>c6] => P[G2=>d12]]



##### 3.4-2 Kernel
 ‣ Kernel( map ) ( operation )
 ‣ Kernel2DimensionalMapping( map ) ( attribute )

The kernel of a morphism of crossed modules is a normal subcrossed module whose groups are the kernels of the source and target homomorphisms. The inclusion of the kernel is a standard example of a crossed square, but these have not yet been implemented.


gap> c2 := Group( (19,20) );
Group([ (19,20) ])
gap> X0 := XModByNormalSubgroup( c2, c2 );  SetName( X0, "X0" );
[Group( [ (19,20) ] )->Group( [ (19,20) ] )]
gap>  SX2 := Source( X2 );;
gap> genSX2 := GeneratorsOfGroup( SX2 );
[ f1, f4, f5, f7 ]
gap> sigma0 := GroupHomomorphismByImages(SX2,c2,genSX2,[(19,20),(),(),()]);
[ f1, f4, f5, f7 ] -> [ (19,20), (), (), () ]
gap> rho0 := GroupHomomorphismByImages(d12,c2,[a1,a2,a3],[(19,20),(),()]);
[ f1, f2, f3 ] -> [ (19,20), (), () ]
gap> mor0 := XModMorphism( X2, X0, sigma0, rho0 );;
gap> K0 := Kernel( mor0 );;
gap> StructureDescription( K0 );
[ "C12", "C6" ]

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